Medicine

[Department of Error] Department of Error

Lancet - 21 April 2018 - 12:00am
Chen I, Cooney R, Feachem RGA, Lal A, Mpanju-Shumbusho W. The Lancet Commission on malaria eradication. Lancet 2018; 391: 1556–58—In this Comment (published online first on April 16, 2018), the affiliation for Winnie Mpanju-Shumbusho should be RBM Partnership to End Malaria, and the weblink should be RBM Partnership to End Malaria. These corrections have been made to the online version as of April 19, 2018, and the printed Comment is correct.
Categories: Medicine

[Comment] The Lancet Commission on malaria eradication

Lancet - 16 April 2018 - 1:00pm
20 years ago, infectious diseases dominated the global health agenda. Policy makers, researchers, implementers, and donors united in the fight against infectious diseases, creating the Millennium Development Goals, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, the US President's Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), the Roll Back Malaria Partnership, the Multilateral Initiative on Malaria (MIM),1 and more. Tremendous progress was made. Malaria benefited spectacularly and there has been a 47% reduction in global deaths from the disease since 2000.
Categories: Medicine

Stimulation of entorhinal cortex–dentate gyrus circuitry is antidepressive

Nature Medicine - 16 April 2018 - 12:00am

Stimulation of entorhinal cortex–dentate gyrus circuitry is antidepressive

Stimulation of entorhinal cortex–dentate gyrus circuitry is antidepressive, Published online: 16 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0002-1

In mouse models of stress-induced depression, molecular and chemogenetic stimulation of the entorhinal cortex induces the production of adult-born hippocampal neurons and generates antidepressive-like effects.
Categories: Medicine

Targeting sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase as an anabolic therapy for bone loss

Nature Medicine - 16 April 2018 - 12:00am

Targeting sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase as an anabolic therapy for bone loss

Targeting sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase as an anabolic therapy for bone loss, Published online: 16 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0005-y

Promoting more bone growth is of keen interest in the treatment of osteoporosis, and preventing the degradation of S1P offers a new therapeutic avenue for this approach.
Categories: Medicine

Differential glucose requirement in skin homeostasis and injury identifies a therapeutic target for psoriasis

Nature Medicine - 16 April 2018 - 12:00am

Differential glucose requirement in skin homeostasis and injury identifies a therapeutic target for psoriasis

Differential glucose requirement in skin homeostasis and injury identifies a therapeutic target for psoriasis, Published online: 16 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0003-0

Keratinocytes require glucose for injury- or inflammation-driven but not homeostatic proliferation, and glucose-transport blockade blocks psoriasis-like pathology in experimental models.
Categories: Medicine

A single injection of crystallizable fragment domain–modified antibodies elicits durable protection from SHIV infection

Nature Medicine - 16 April 2018 - 12:00am

A single injection of crystallizable fragment domain–modified antibodies elicits durable protection from SHIV infection

A single injection of crystallizable fragment domain–modified antibodies elicits durable protection from SHIV infection, Published online: 16 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0001-2

Long-lived antibodies that can prevent viral infection of monkeys for 6 months may be a future alternative to an HIV vaccine.
Categories: Medicine

Potent antitumor efficacy of anti-GD2 CAR T cells in H3-K27M<sup>+</sup> diffuse midline gliomas

Nature Medicine - 16 April 2018 - 12:00am

Potent antitumor efficacy of anti-GD2 CAR T cells in H3-K27M+ diffuse midline gliomas

Potent antitumor efficacy of anti-GD2 CAR T cells in H3-K27M<sup>+</sup> diffuse midline gliomas, Published online: 16 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0006-x

Lethal pediatric tumors bearing a particular histone H3 mutation upregulate the disialoganglioside GD2, thereby making these tumors susceptible to chimeric antigen receptor T cell–based immunotherapy.
Categories: Medicine

[Editorial] Closing the gender pay gap: when and how?

Lancet - 14 April 2018 - 12:00am
The most recent estimates by the World Economic Forum indicate that the global economic gender gap will take 217 years to close, and that this gap widened in 2017. That pay inequality is pervasive in the UK is therefore unsurprising. The UK median gender pay gap—the difference in average hourly earnings between men and women—is 18%. To address this disparity, the UK became the first country to mandate individual employers to release their gender pay gap data. All public and private sector employers with at least 250 employees had to report by April 4, 2018.
Categories: Medicine

[Editorial] The General Medical Council has lost its way

Lancet - 14 April 2018 - 12:00am
On March 28, the tragic case of Jack Adcock—a 6-year-old boy with Down's syndrome who died of sepsis in Leicester Royal Infirmary in 2011—and Dr Hadiza Bawa-Garba took another turn. Bawa-Garba, the paediatric trainee convicted of gross negligence manslaughter by a jury in 2015, was given permission to appeal a January High Court ruling to permanently strike her off the medical register. The General Medical Council (GMC), the UK's licensing body for doctors, had successfully appealed its own but independent Medical Practitioners Tribunal Service's decision from last July to suspend the doctor for 12 months but not revoke her licence.
Categories: Medicine

[Editorial] South Africa sliding backwards

Lancet - 14 April 2018 - 12:00am
After nearly two decades of progress following the abolishment of apartheid, South Africa's societal gains are now deteriorating. These are the conclusions of a report published on March 28 by The World Bank that analysed the country's progress in reducing poverty and inequality from 1994 to 2015. While overall the country's poverty levels have fallen since 1994, at least 2·5 million more South Africans since then have become poor. Over half the population lives under the poverty line, many of whom are black or South Africans of mixed race.
Categories: Medicine

[Comment] Thresholds for safer alcohol use might need lowering

Lancet - 14 April 2018 - 12:00am
Guidelines for levels of alcohol use that pose a low risk to drinkers' health are provided by many countries, usually based on meta-analyses of epidemiological studies.1–3 However, to devise such guidelines is challenging because alcohol is linked to poor health in various and complex ways. Injury, suicide, and assault, for example, are associated with drinking to intoxication, whereas regular alcohol consumption increases the risks of liver cirrhosis, gastrointestinal diseases, cardiovascular disease, dementia, and some types of cancer.
Categories: Medicine

[Comment] The social sciences, humanities, and health

Lancet - 14 April 2018 - 12:00am
Humanities and social sciences have had many positive influences on health experiences, care, and expenditure. These include on self-management for diabetes, provision of psychological therapy, handwashing, hospital checklists, the Scottish Government's stroke guidelines, England's tobacco control strategy, the response to the Ebola outbreak in west Africa and Zika virus in Brazil, and many more.1 Researchers have shown time and time again the political, practical, economic, and civic value of education and research in disciplines like anthropology, history, and philosophy.
Categories: Medicine

[Comment] Offline: “A sea of suffering”

Lancet - 14 April 2018 - 12:00am
How did it happen that palliative care lost the dignity debate? Palliative care is a discipline dedicated to improving quality of life by preventing and alleviating suffering. There can be few higher callings in medicine. Yet those who advocate “dignity in dying” have successfully claimed that the idea of dignity lies not in palliative care but in assisted dying for the terminally ill. A large majority of the public seems to agree. Those in favour of assisted dying have portrayed palliative care as somehow antithetical to patient autonomy.
Categories: Medicine

[World Report] Ireland to vote on a referendum to repeal the Eighth

Lancet - 14 April 2018 - 12:00am
Ireland has set a date for a referendum that could be decisive in women's access to abortion. Anita Makri reports on the arguments on both sides of the debate.
Categories: Medicine

[World Report] Mediators help migrants access health services in Italy

Lancet - 14 April 2018 - 12:00am
Cultural mediators can help migrants, asylum seekers, and refugees to face what can seem an insurmountable wall of cultural difference. Amanda Sperber reports from Polistena.
Categories: Medicine

[World Report] Charles Perkins Centre

Lancet - 14 April 2018 - 12:00am
Obesity and the diseases that are related to it are at the core field of Sydney's Charles Perkins Centre, led by a man whose first area of research was locust behaviour. Stephen Simpson says his own varied background shows why this research body is different.
Categories: Medicine

[Perspectives] Syphilis

Lancet - 14 April 2018 - 12:00am
For early modern physicians syphilis was “the great imitator”, a disease that mystified with the sheer range of its symptoms and the length of time it might take to show itself. Syphilis was first recorded in Europe in the mid-1490s, and the coincidence with Christopher Columbus' first voyage to the New World led contemporary physicians (along with more recent archaeologists and historians) to conclude that his sailors had brought the disease back with them.
Categories: Medicine

[Perspectives] The teenage brain: under construction

Lancet - 14 April 2018 - 12:00am
There have been times when I've said that if I ended up meeting my teenage self, due to some bizarre time-travel mishap, I'd probably end up trying to strangle the arrogant, bungling, self-absorbed waste of space that he was. I've heard other people echo similar sentiments. It's weird how so many think so little of their adolescent selves, from their older, more mature perspective. How can we change so much and yet remain the same person? And why were we like that, consumed with all the neuroses and priorities that as adolescents were so vital but now just seem ridiculous, or baffling, or even a little sad?
Categories: Medicine

[Perspectives] Guo-Qiang Chen: haematologist who risked all for research success

Lancet - 14 April 2018 - 12:00am
If determination is a predictor of future achievements in medical research, the likelihood that Professor Guo-Qiang Chen would have a flourishing career should have become apparent when he was still a very junior doctor. To leave the provincial medical school to which he was then contracted and relocate himself to a distant and more research-oriented institution, he had to find the money to take on a major debt. It was, as he himself admits, “a gamble”. Now, some 25 years later, Chen is a member of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chancellor of Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, and Director of its Laboratory of Cell Differentiation and Apoptosis.
Categories: Medicine

[Perspectives] Do doctors die better than philosophers?

Lancet - 14 April 2018 - 12:00am
Death has become quite modish, and being constantly aware of one's mortality is now regarded as an essential component of spiritual and psychological health. My book The Way We Die Now was published in 2016, and since then I have given many talks and written several articles on the subject of death. I am often asked whether all of this talking and writing about death has prepared me any better for my own demise.
Categories: Medicine

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