Medicine

Protection against tuberculosis by mucosal BCG administration

Nature Medicine - 28 January 2019 - 12:00am

Protection against tuberculosis by mucosal BCG administration

Protection against tuberculosis by mucosal BCG administration, Published online: 28 January 2019; doi:10.1038/s41591-019-0347-0

Vaccination with the tuberculosis (TB) vaccine Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) into the lungs of Rhesus macaques induces specific, local immune responses that delay infection in some animals and completely prevent it in others while protecting against TB disease.
Categories: Medicine

Current and future influenza vaccines

Nature Medicine - 28 January 2019 - 12:00am

Current and future influenza vaccines

Current and future influenza vaccines, Published online: 28 January 2019; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0340-z

The universal flu vaccine remains elusive, but there are several strategies that scientists can take to develop one, including closer monitoring of viral evolution.
Categories: Medicine

Non-invasive prenatal sequencing for multiple Mendelian monogenic disorders using circulating cell-free fetal DNA

Nature Medicine - 28 January 2019 - 12:00am

Non-invasive prenatal sequencing for multiple Mendelian monogenic disorders using circulating cell-free fetal DNA

Non-invasive prenatal sequencing for multiple Mendelian monogenic disorders using circulating cell-free fetal DNA, Published online: 28 January 2019; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0334-x

A non-invasive prenatal test utilizing cell-free DNA simultaneously detects mutations in 30 genes frequently associated with dominant monogenic diseases and demonstrates high accuracy in human clinical samples.
Categories: Medicine

ApoE attenuates unresolvable inflammation by complex formation with activated C1q

Nature Medicine - 28 January 2019 - 12:00am

ApoE attenuates unresolvable inflammation by complex formation with activated C1q

ApoE attenuates unresolvable inflammation by complex formation with activated C1q, Published online: 28 January 2019; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0336-8

ApoE is a direct checkpoint inhibitor of unresolvable inflammation in neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases
Categories: Medicine

Publisher Correction: Calibration of CAR activation potential directs alternative T cell fates and therapeutic potency

Nature Medicine - 28 January 2019 - 12:00am

Publisher Correction: Calibration of CAR activation potential directs alternative T cell fates and therapeutic potency

Publisher Correction: Calibration of CAR activation potential directs alternative T cell fates and therapeutic potency, Published online: 28 January 2019; doi:10.1038/s41591-019-0360-3

Publisher Correction: Calibration of CAR activation potential directs alternative T cell fates and therapeutic potency
Categories: Medicine

Identification of preexisting adaptive immunity to Cas9 proteins in humans

Nature Medicine - 28 January 2019 - 12:00am

Identification of preexisting adaptive immunity to Cas9 proteins in humans

Identification of preexisting adaptive immunity to Cas9 proteins in humans, Published online: 28 January 2019; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0326-x

Cas9-specific antibodies and reactive T cells are found in the majority of healthy adult human serum samples analyzed. Such preexisting adaptive immunity should be taken into consideration as the CRISPR–Cas9 system moves toward clinical trials.
Categories: Medicine

Publisher Correction: Cardiologist-level arrhythmia detection and classification in ambulatory electrocardiograms using a deep neural network

Nature Medicine - 24 January 2019 - 12:00am

Publisher Correction: Cardiologist-level arrhythmia detection and classification in ambulatory electrocardiograms using a deep neural network

Publisher Correction: Cardiologist-level arrhythmia detection and classification in ambulatory electrocardiograms using a deep neural network, Published online: 24 January 2019; doi:10.1038/s41591-019-0359-9

Publisher Correction: Cardiologist-level arrhythmia detection and classification in ambulatory electrocardiograms using a deep neural network
Categories: Medicine

Author Correction: Sequestration of T cells in bone marrow in the setting of glioblastoma and other intracranial tumors

Nature Medicine - 22 January 2019 - 12:00am

Author Correction: Sequestration of T cells in bone marrow in the setting of glioblastoma and other intracranial tumors

Author Correction: Sequestration of T cells in bone marrow in the setting of glioblastoma and other intracranial tumors, Published online: 22 January 2019; doi:10.1038/s41591-019-0355-0

Author Correction: Sequestration of T cells in bone marrow in the setting of glioblastoma and other intracranial tumors
Categories: Medicine

Small-molecule targeting of brachyury transcription factor addiction in chordoma

Nature Medicine - 21 January 2019 - 12:00am

Small-molecule targeting of brachyury transcription factor addiction in chordoma

Small-molecule targeting of brachyury transcription factor addiction in chordoma, Published online: 21 January 2019; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0312-3

A combination of genome-scale CRISPR-Cas9 screening and focused small-molecule sensitivity profiling enables the discovery of therapeutically targetable tumor dependencies in rare tumors.
Categories: Medicine

Microbial network disturbances in relapsing refractory Crohn’s disease

Nature Medicine - 21 January 2019 - 12:00am

Microbial network disturbances in relapsing refractory Crohn’s disease

Microbial network disturbances in relapsing refractory Crohn’s disease, Published online: 21 January 2019; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0308-z

A disturbed microbial network characterizes relapsing refractory Crohn’s disease and antedates disease recurrence after surgical removal of the active disease segment.
Categories: Medicine

Prevention of tuberculosis infection and disease by local BCG in repeatedly exposed rhesus macaques

Nature Medicine - 21 January 2019 - 12:00am

Prevention of tuberculosis infection and disease by local BCG in repeatedly exposed rhesus macaques

Prevention of tuberculosis infection and disease by local BCG in repeatedly exposed rhesus macaques, Published online: 21 January 2019; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0319-9

Delivery of the Bacillus Calmette–Guérin vaccine into the lungs but not the skin of rhesus macaques protects animals from infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, suggesting that immune responses elicited locally may be required for vaccine efficacy.
Categories: Medicine

Intrabone hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy for adult and pediatric patients affected by transfusion-dependent ß-thalassemia

Nature Medicine - 21 January 2019 - 12:00am

Intrabone hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy for adult and pediatric patients affected by transfusion-dependent ß-thalassemia

Intrabone hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy for adult and pediatric patients affected by transfusion-dependent ß-thalassemia, Published online: 21 January 2019; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0301-6

In a phase 1/2 clinical trial, gene therapy with autologous hematopoietic stem cells significantly reduced transfusion requirement in adults and children with transfusion dependent ß-thalassemia.
Categories: Medicine

Serum neurofilament dynamics predicts neurodegeneration and clinical progression in presymptomatic Alzheimer’s disease

Nature Medicine - 21 January 2019 - 12:00am

Serum neurofilament dynamics predicts neurodegeneration and clinical progression in presymptomatic Alzheimer’s disease

Serum neurofilament dynamics predicts neurodegeneration and clinical progression in presymptomatic Alzheimer’s disease, Published online: 21 January 2019; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0304-3

In a longitudinal cohort of familial Alzheimer’s disease patients, the rate of change of blood biomarker levels identifies disease carriers much earlier than absolute levels and predicts both neurodegeneration and cognitive decline.
Categories: Medicine

Deciphering the genomic, epigenomic, and transcriptomic landscapes of pre-invasive lung cancer lesions

Nature Medicine - 21 January 2019 - 12:00am

Deciphering the genomic, epigenomic, and transcriptomic landscapes of pre-invasive lung cancer lesions

Deciphering the genomic, epigenomic, and transcriptomic landscapes of pre-invasive lung cancer lesions, Published online: 21 January 2019; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0323-0

A multi-omics survey of progressive compared to regressive carcinoma in situ lesions provides a molecular map of early lung cancer development.
Categories: Medicine

Development of a gene-editing approach to restore vision loss in Leber congenital amaurosis type 10

Nature Medicine - 21 January 2019 - 12:00am

Development of a gene-editing approach to restore vision loss in Leber congenital amaurosis type 10

Development of a gene-editing approach to restore vision loss in Leber congenital amaurosis type 10, Published online: 21 January 2019; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0327-9

In human cells, a humanized mouse model and non-human primates, CRISPR/Cas9 corrects the splicing defect in a gene associated with congenital blindness.
Categories: Medicine

<i>Arrested cells may awaken yet </i>

Nature Medicine - 15 January 2019 - 12:00am

Arrested cells may awaken yet

<i>Arrested cells may awaken yet </i>, Published online: 15 January 2019; doi:10.1038/d41591-019-00004-x

The revived cells might spell further trouble for diseases such as cancer.
Categories: Medicine

Blood–brain barrier breakdown is an early biomarker of human cognitive dysfunction

Nature Medicine - 14 January 2019 - 12:00am

Blood–brain barrier breakdown is an early biomarker of human cognitive dysfunction

Blood–brain barrier breakdown is an early biomarker of human cognitive dysfunction, Published online: 14 January 2019; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0297-y

Neuroimaging and cerebrospinal fluid analyses in humans reveal that loss of blood–brain barrier integrity and brain capillary pericyte damage are early biomarkers of cognitive impairment that occur independently of changes in amyloid-β and tau.
Categories: Medicine

Healthy infants harbor intestinal bacteria that protect against food allergy

Nature Medicine - 14 January 2019 - 12:00am

Healthy infants harbor intestinal bacteria that protect against food allergy

Healthy infants harbor intestinal bacteria that protect against food allergy, Published online: 14 January 2019; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0324-z

Specific members of the gut microbiota are critical for regulating allergic responses to dietary antigens.
Categories: Medicine

<i>Smelly gas protects against clogged arteries</i>

Nature Medicine - 14 January 2019 - 12:00am

Smelly gas protects against clogged arteries

<i>Smelly gas protects against clogged arteries</i>, Published online: 14 January 2019; doi:10.1038/d41591-019-00001-0

Mice given a hydrogen-sulfide-generating drug had less plaque buildup
Categories: Medicine

Cannabinoid CB<sub>1</sub> receptors in the amygdalar cholecystokinin glutamatergic afferents to nucleus accumbens modulate depressive-like behavior

Nature Medicine - 14 January 2019 - 12:00am

Cannabinoid CB1 receptors in the amygdalar cholecystokinin glutamatergic afferents to nucleus accumbens modulate depressive-like behavior

Cannabinoid CB<sub>1</sub> receptors in the amygdalar cholecystokinin glutamatergic afferents to nucleus accumbens modulate depressive-like behavior, Published online: 14 January 2019; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0299-9

Activating cannabinoid receptors in a newly identified neural circuit ameliorates depressive-like behaviors in mice.
Categories: Medicine

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