Medicine

Aurora kinase A drives the evolution of resistance to third-generation EGFR inhibitors in lung cancer

Nature Medicine - 26 November 2018 - 12:00am

Aurora kinase A drives the evolution of resistance to third-generation EGFR inhibitors in lung cancer

Aurora kinase A drives the evolution of resistance to third-generation EGFR inhibitors in lung cancer, Published online: 26 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0264-7

Nongenetic activation of Aurora kinase A in the majority of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer mediates adaptive resistance to EGFR inhibition and offers an opportunity for combination treatment.
Categories: Medicine

<sup>89</sup>Zr-atezolizumab imaging as a non-invasive approach to assess clinical response to PD-L1 blockade in cancer

Nature Medicine - 26 November 2018 - 12:00am

89Zr-atezolizumab imaging as a non-invasive approach to assess clinical response to PD-L1 blockade in cancer

<sup>89</sup>Zr-atezolizumab imaging as a non-invasive approach to assess clinical response to PD-L1 blockade in cancer, Published online: 26 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0255-8

Initial results from a first-in-human study show that PET imaging with PD-L1 antibodies outperforms immunohistochemistry- or RNA-sequencing-based biomarkers for prediction of clinical response to immunotherapy.
Categories: Medicine

ONECUT2 is a targetable master regulator of lethal prostate cancer that suppresses the androgen axis

Nature Medicine - 26 November 2018 - 12:00am

ONECUT2 is a targetable master regulator of lethal prostate cancer that suppresses the androgen axis

ONECUT2 is a targetable master regulator of lethal prostate cancer that suppresses the androgen axis, Published online: 26 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0241-1

ONECUT2 is a targetable transcription factor that antagonizes androgen receptor signaling and drives androgen independence and neuroendocrine differentiation in castration-resistant prostate cancer.
Categories: Medicine

Dynamic molecular monitoring reveals that SWI–SNF mutations mediate resistance to ibrutinib plus venetoclax in mantle cell lymphoma

Nature Medicine - 19 November 2018 - 12:00am

Dynamic molecular monitoring reveals that SWI–SNF mutations mediate resistance to ibrutinib plus venetoclax in mantle cell lymphoma

Dynamic molecular monitoring reveals that SWI–SNF mutations mediate resistance to ibrutinib plus venetoclax in mantle cell lymphoma, Published online: 19 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0243-z

Molecular alterations in ctDNA of patients with mantle cell lymphoma uncovers mutations in SWI–SNF associated with resistance to ibrutinib and venetoclax combination and provide a rationale for restoring sensitivity through Bcl-xL inhibition.
Categories: Medicine

Publisher Correction: A patient-level pooled analysis of treatment-shortening regimens for drug-susceptible pulmonary tuberculosis

Nature Medicine - 14 November 2018 - 12:00am

Publisher Correction: A patient-level pooled analysis of treatment-shortening regimens for drug-susceptible pulmonary tuberculosis

Publisher Correction: A patient-level pooled analysis of treatment-shortening regimens for drug-susceptible pulmonary tuberculosis, Published online: 14 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0294-1

Publisher Correction: A patient-level pooled analysis of treatment-shortening regimens for drug-susceptible pulmonary tuberculosis
Categories: Medicine

Fecal microbiota transplantation for refractory immune checkpoint inhibitor-associated colitis

Nature Medicine - 12 November 2018 - 12:00am

Fecal microbiota transplantation for refractory immune checkpoint inhibitor-associated colitis

Fecal microbiota transplantation for refractory immune checkpoint inhibitor-associated colitis, Published online: 12 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0238-9

Preliminary evidence from two cases suggests that fecal microbiota transplantation may provide a viable treatment option for a severe adverse effect of immune checkpoint blockade therapy in patients with cancer.
Categories: Medicine

Venetoclax with azacitidine disrupts energy metabolism and targets leukemia stem cells in patients with acute myeloid leukemia

Nature Medicine - 12 November 2018 - 12:00am

Venetoclax with azacitidine disrupts energy metabolism and targets leukemia stem cells in patients with acute myeloid leukemia

Venetoclax with azacitidine disrupts energy metabolism and targets leukemia stem cells in patients with acute myeloid leukemia, Published online: 12 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0233-1

Targeting of mitochondrial metabolism in combination with BCL-2 inhibition eradicates leukemia stem cells and induces long-lasting responses in patients with acute myeloid leukemia.
Categories: Medicine

Paradoxical effects of obesity on T cell function during tumor progression and PD-1 checkpoint blockade

Nature Medicine - 12 November 2018 - 12:00am

Paradoxical effects of obesity on T cell function during tumor progression and PD-1 checkpoint blockade

Paradoxical effects of obesity on T cell function during tumor progression and PD-1 checkpoint blockade, Published online: 12 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0221-5

Obesity promotes tumor growth yet simultaneously increases susceptibility to PD-1-targeted cancer immunotherapy.
Categories: Medicine

Disease-specific oligodendrocyte lineage cells arise in multiple sclerosis

Nature Medicine - 12 November 2018 - 12:00am

Disease-specific oligodendrocyte lineage cells arise in multiple sclerosis

Disease-specific oligodendrocyte lineage cells arise in multiple sclerosis, Published online: 12 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0236-y

Single-cell RNA-seq of a mouse model of multiple sclerosis uncovers new oligodendrocyte populations and putative disease markers and suggests new mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of the disease.
Categories: Medicine

Human skeletal stem cells identified

Nature Medicine - 6 November 2018 - 12:00am

Human skeletal stem cells identified

Human skeletal stem cells identified, Published online: 06 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0260-y

Human skeletal stem cells identified
Categories: Medicine

Biomarkers for checkpoint blockade

Nature Medicine - 6 November 2018 - 12:00am

Biomarkers for checkpoint blockade

Biomarkers for checkpoint blockade, Published online: 06 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0257-6

Biomarkers for checkpoint blockade
Categories: Medicine

A stratified approach to tuberculosis treatment

Nature Medicine - 6 November 2018 - 12:00am

A stratified approach to tuberculosis treatment

A stratified approach to tuberculosis treatment, Published online: 06 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0244-y

Stratifying tuberculosis (TB) disease into minimal, moderate or severe disease may allow treatment duration to be tailored to disease severity. Minimal poor adherence is associated with poor treatment outcomes.
Categories: Medicine

Rules of engagement in the gut microbiome

Nature Medicine - 6 November 2018 - 12:00am

Rules of engagement in the gut microbiome

Rules of engagement in the gut microbiome, Published online: 06 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0242-0

In humans, niche-specific gastrointestinal microbiomes influence the colonization success of probiotic microbes. Microbiome reconstitution following antimicrobial perturbation is most successful using preperturbation autofecal microbial transplant.
Categories: Medicine

Analyzing the drug overdose epidemic in the United States

Nature Medicine - 6 November 2018 - 12:00am

Analyzing the drug overdose epidemic in the United States

Analyzing the drug overdose epidemic in the United States, Published online: 06 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0261-x

Analyzing the drug overdose epidemic in the United States
Categories: Medicine

A vaccine for tuberculosis

Nature Medicine - 6 November 2018 - 12:00am

A vaccine for tuberculosis

A vaccine for tuberculosis, Published online: 06 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0258-5

A vaccine for tuberculosis
Categories: Medicine

Is earlier better for melanoma checkpoint blockade?

Nature Medicine - 6 November 2018 - 12:00am

Is earlier better for melanoma checkpoint blockade?

Is earlier better for melanoma checkpoint blockade?, Published online: 06 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0250-0

Is earlier better for melanoma checkpoint blockade?
Categories: Medicine

Confronting conflict of interest

Nature Medicine - 6 November 2018 - 12:00am

Confronting conflict of interest

Confronting conflict of interest, Published online: 06 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0256-7

Recent news stories about conflict of interest in biomedical research have shaken up public and private institutions alike, but their focus was on clinical research. Amidst the renewed focus on conflicts of interest in clinical work, let’s not disregard the fact that financial conflicts also pose a concern to basic and preclinical research.
Categories: Medicine

Individualized sepsis treatment using reinforcement learning

Nature Medicine - 5 November 2018 - 12:00am

Individualized sepsis treatment using reinforcement learning

Individualized sepsis treatment using reinforcement learning, Published online: 05 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0253-x

Reinforcement learning is applied to two large databases of electronic health records for patients admitted to an intensive care unit to identify individualized treatment strategies for correcting hypotension in sepsis.
Categories: Medicine

Radiotherapy induces responses of lung cancer to CTLA-4 blockade

Nature Medicine - 5 November 2018 - 12:00am

Radiotherapy induces responses of lung cancer to CTLA-4 blockade

Radiotherapy induces responses of lung cancer to CTLA-4 blockade, Published online: 05 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0232-2

Radiotherapy-induced abscopal responses enhance the efficacy of anti-CTLA-4 in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer.
Categories: Medicine

Longitudinal personal DNA methylome dynamics in a human with a chronic condition

Nature Medicine - 5 November 2018 - 12:00am

Longitudinal personal DNA methylome dynamics in a human with a chronic condition

Longitudinal personal DNA methylome dynamics in a human with a chronic condition, Published online: 05 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0237-x

Personal ‘omics’ analysis of a single individual over a period of 3 years reveals that different types of omics data associate with episodes of acute and chronic disease.
Categories: Medicine

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