Medicine

Expanded skin virome in DOCK8-deficient patients

Nature Medicine - 5 November 2018 - 12:00am

Expanded skin virome in DOCK8-deficient patients

Expanded skin virome in DOCK8-deficient patients, Published online: 05 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0211-7

Skin from individuals with a rare immunodeficiency harbors more eukaryotic viruses than healthy skin, highlighting the role of immune surveillance in modulating the skin microbiome.
Categories: Medicine

Cancer cells exploit an orphan RNA to drive metastatic progression

Nature Medicine - 5 November 2018 - 12:00am

Cancer cells exploit an orphan RNA to drive metastatic progression

Cancer cells exploit an orphan RNA to drive metastatic progression, Published online: 05 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0230-4

A novel orphan noncoding RNA species with tumor-specific expression across breast cancer subtypes promotes metastatic progression and holds potential for patient diagnosis.
Categories: Medicine

A patient-level pooled analysis of treatment-shortening regimens for drug-susceptible pulmonary tuberculosis

Nature Medicine - 5 November 2018 - 12:00am

A patient-level pooled analysis of treatment-shortening regimens for drug-susceptible pulmonary tuberculosis

A patient-level pooled analysis of treatment-shortening regimens for drug-susceptible pulmonary tuberculosis, Published online: 05 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0224-2

Analysis of tuberculosis drug trials identifies features to stratify patients for longer or shorter treatment duration than the standard of care, in order to improve therapeutic outcomes.
Categories: Medicine

Gut microbiota and intestinal FXR mediate the clinical benefits of metformin

Nature Medicine - 5 November 2018 - 12:00am

Gut microbiota and intestinal FXR mediate the clinical benefits of metformin

Gut microbiota and intestinal FXR mediate the clinical benefits of metformin, Published online: 05 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0222-4

Metformin decreases the levels of Bacteroides fragilis while increasing the bile acid GUDCA to antagonize intestinal FXR and improves the metabolic health of humans and mice.
Categories: Medicine

Gutted about opioids

Nature Medicine - 30 October 2018 - 12:00am

Gutted about opioids

Gutted about opioids, Published online: 30 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0246-9

The microbiome may have an influence on addiction
Categories: Medicine

Back in the spotlight

Nature Medicine - 30 October 2018 - 12:00am

Back in the spotlight

Back in the spotlight, Published online: 30 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0245-x

A long-neglected virus returns to the top of researchers’ to-do lists.
Categories: Medicine

Neurogenetic contributions to amyloid beta and tau spreading in the human cortex

Nature Medicine - 29 October 2018 - 12:00am

Neurogenetic contributions to amyloid beta and tau spreading in the human cortex

Neurogenetic contributions to amyloid beta and tau spreading in the human cortex, Published online: 29 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0206-4

Cross-sectional and longitudinal PET imaging of amyloid beta and tau in the human brain is combined with gene expression profiles to define the interactions between Alzheimer’s disease-related pathology propagation and brain-region-specific vulnerability.
Categories: Medicine

Infant diet and maternal gestational weight gain predict early metabolic maturation of gut microbiomes

Nature Medicine - 29 October 2018 - 12:00am

Infant diet and maternal gestational weight gain predict early metabolic maturation of gut microbiomes

Infant diet and maternal gestational weight gain predict early metabolic maturation of gut microbiomes, Published online: 29 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0216-2

Infant nutrition and maternal weight gain during pregnancy impact early-life acquisition and function of the gut microbiome .
Categories: Medicine

High prevalence of <i>Streptococcus pyogenes</i> Cas9-reactive T cells within the adult human population

Nature Medicine - 29 October 2018 - 12:00am

High prevalence of Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9-reactive T cells within the adult human population

High prevalence of <i>Streptococcus pyogenes</i> Cas9-reactive T cells within the adult human population, Published online: 29 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0204-6

T cells that react to SpCas9 are observed in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from healthy humans. These findings may have implications for CRISPR–Cas9 therapeutics.
Categories: Medicine

Translational control of tumor immune escape via the eIF4F–STAT1–PD-L1 axis in melanoma

Nature Medicine - 29 October 2018 - 12:00am

Translational control of tumor immune escape via the eIF4F–STAT1–PD-L1 axis in melanoma

Translational control of tumor immune escape via the eIF4F–STAT1–PD-L1 axis in melanoma, Published online: 29 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0217-1

The translation initiation complex mediates tumor immune escape in melanoma by controlling STAT1 mRNA levels and T lymphocyte–induced PD-L1 expression.
Categories: Medicine

Linking brain tumors and epileptic seizures

Nature Medicine - 29 October 2018 - 12:00am

Linking brain tumors and epileptic seizures

Linking brain tumors and epileptic seizures, Published online: 29 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0249-6

Mutationally activated BRAF-V600E influences the behavior of different types of cells in the brain and leads to promotion of seizures as well as brain tumors, indicating how both can be pharmacologically targeted in the clinic.
Categories: Medicine

Author Correction: Neoadjuvant immune checkpoint blockade in high-risk resectable melanoma

Nature Medicine - 25 October 2018 - 12:00am

Author Correction: Neoadjuvant immune checkpoint blockade in high-risk resectable melanoma

Author Correction: Neoadjuvant immune checkpoint blockade in high-risk resectable melanoma, Published online: 25 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0251-z

Author Correction: Neoadjuvant immune checkpoint blockade in high-risk resectable melanoma
Categories: Medicine

Publisher Correction: Neoadjuvant immune checkpoint blockade in high-risk resectable melanoma

Nature Medicine - 25 October 2018 - 12:00am

Publisher Correction: Neoadjuvant immune checkpoint blockade in high-risk resectable melanoma

Publisher Correction: Neoadjuvant immune checkpoint blockade in high-risk resectable melanoma, Published online: 25 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0252-y

Publisher Correction: Neoadjuvant immune checkpoint blockade in high-risk resectable melanoma
Categories: Medicine

Publisher Correction: Neuromodulation of lumbosacral spinal networks enables independent stepping after complete paraplegia

Nature Medicine - 23 October 2018 - 12:00am

Publisher Correction: Neuromodulation of lumbosacral spinal networks enables independent stepping after complete paraplegia

Publisher Correction: Neuromodulation of lumbosacral spinal networks enables independent stepping after complete paraplegia, Published online: 23 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0248-7

Publisher Correction: Neuromodulation of lumbosacral spinal networks enables independent stepping after complete paraplegia
Categories: Medicine

The Artificial Intelligence Clinician learns optimal treatment strategies for sepsis in intensive care

Nature Medicine - 22 October 2018 - 12:00am

The Artificial Intelligence Clinician learns optimal treatment strategies for sepsis in intensive care

The Artificial Intelligence Clinician learns optimal treatment strategies for sepsis in intensive care, Published online: 22 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0213-5

A reinforcement learning agent, the AI Clinician, can assist physicians by providing individualized and clinically interpretable treatment decisions to improve patient outcomes.
Categories: Medicine

A biobank of patient-derived pediatric brain tumor models

Nature Medicine - 22 October 2018 - 12:00am

A biobank of patient-derived pediatric brain tumor models

A biobank of patient-derived pediatric brain tumor models, Published online: 22 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0207-3

A resource of preclinical pediatric brain tumor models with detailed molecular characterization provides a platform for the community to test novel therapeutic approaches.
Categories: Medicine

Antigen discovery and specification of immunodominance hierarchies for MHCII-restricted epitopes

Nature Medicine - 22 October 2018 - 12:00am

Antigen discovery and specification of immunodominance hierarchies for MHCII-restricted epitopes

Antigen discovery and specification of immunodominance hierarchies for MHCII-restricted epitopes, Published online: 22 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0203-7

A quantitative proteomic approach overcomes a major bottleneck in translational immunology, namely the identification of autologous and bacterial immunodominant major histocompatibility complex class II epitopes based on genomic sequences.
Categories: Medicine

Publisher Correction: Robust prediction of response to immune checkpoint blockade therapy in metastatic melanoma

Nature Medicine - 17 October 2018 - 12:00am

Publisher Correction: Robust prediction of response to immune checkpoint blockade therapy in metastatic melanoma

Publisher Correction: Robust prediction of response to immune checkpoint blockade therapy in metastatic melanoma, Published online: 17 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0247-8

Publisher Correction: Robust prediction of response to immune checkpoint blockade therapy in metastatic melanoma
Categories: Medicine

Precision identification of diverse bloodstream pathogens in the gut microbiome

Nature Medicine - 15 October 2018 - 12:00am

Precision identification of diverse bloodstream pathogens in the gut microbiome

Precision identification of diverse bloodstream pathogens in the gut microbiome, Published online: 15 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0202-8

A new bioinformatic tool identifies a candidate source of bloodstream infection for better management and prevention of hospital-acquired infections.
Categories: Medicine

Going to waste

Nature Medicine - 8 October 2018 - 12:00am

Going to waste

Going to waste, Published online: 08 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0218-0

Virologists say sewage systems are flush with opportunity.
Categories: Medicine

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