Medicine

[Correspondence] Pitfalls of the healthy vaccinee effect – Authors' reply

Lancet - 13 January 2018 - 12:00am
In our Article,1 we presented findings from a case-control study that showed a protective effect of a meningococcal vaccine against gonorrhoea infection. In their Correspondence, Salaheddin Mahmud and Christiaan Righolt argue that the correct method to determine vaccine efficacy is a randomised controlled trial (RCT) and that our use of chlamydia as a control is problematic. We would like to clarify the points raised in their letter.
Categories: Medicine

Genomics in childhood acute myeloid leukemia comes of age

Nature Medicine - 9 January 2018 - 12:00am

Genomics in childhood acute myeloid leukemia comes of age

Genomics in childhood acute myeloid leukemia comes of age, Published online: 09 January 2018; doi:10.1038/nm.4469

A Children's Oncology Group study of nearly 1,000 pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cases reveals marked differences between the genomic landscapes of pediatric and adult AML and offers directions for future work.
Categories: Medicine

Correction

Nature Medicine - 9 January 2018 - 12:00am

Correction

Correction, Published online: 09 January 2018; doi:10.1038/nm0118-5

Correction
Categories: Medicine

Lipid metabolic reprogramming in hepatic ischemia–reperfusion injury

Nature Medicine - 9 January 2018 - 12:00am

Lipid metabolic reprogramming in hepatic ischemia–reperfusion injury

Lipid metabolic reprogramming in hepatic ischemia–reperfusion injury, Published online: 09 January 2018; doi:10.1038/nm.4468

In a recent study of hepatic ischemia–reperfusion injury (IRI), Zhang et al. use tandem 'omics' approaches in mice, pigs, and nonhuman primates to identify lipid metabolic reprogramming as a key determinant of IRI, thus providing novel mechanistic and therapeutic insights.
Categories: Medicine

Puzzling over privilege: How the immune system protects—and fails—the testes

Nature Medicine - 9 January 2018 - 12:00am

Puzzling over privilege: How the immune system protects—and fails—the testes

Puzzling over privilege: How the immune system protects—and fails—the testes, Published online: 09 January 2018; doi:10.1038/nm0118-2

Puzzling over privilege: How the immune system protects—and fails—the testes
Categories: Medicine

The role of vaccines in preventing bacterial antimicrobial resistance

Nature Medicine - 9 January 2018 - 12:00am

The role of vaccines in preventing bacterial antimicrobial resistance

The role of vaccines in preventing bacterial antimicrobial resistance, Published online: 09 January 2018; doi:10.1038/nm.4465

One strategy to counter the rise of antimicrobial resistance is the development of vaccines against resistant pathogens, preventing further infection and spread of antimicrobial resistance.
Categories: Medicine

Thinking big in mental health

Nature Medicine - 9 January 2018 - 12:00am

Thinking big in mental health

Thinking big in mental health, Published online: 09 January 2018; doi:10.1038/nm.4471

Mental illnesses impose a grave disease burden worldwide, yet progress in managing and treating them has largely stalled. Harnessing the power of big data may break the current impasse and open new avenues for better diagnosis, treatment and prevention of these devastating illnesses.
Categories: Medicine

Diverse genetic-driven immune landscapes dictate tumor progression through distinct mechanisms

Nature Medicine - 8 January 2018 - 12:00am

Diverse genetic-driven immune landscapes dictate tumor progression through distinct mechanisms

Diverse genetic-driven immune landscapes dictate tumor progression through distinct mechanisms, Published online: 08 January 2018; doi:10.1038/nm.4463

Pier Paolo Pandolfi and colleagues report that the genetic background of tumors in mice recruits specific immune-cell subsets, suggesting that precision medicine should account for both the tumor drivers and the distinct immune-cell microenvironments that they elicit.
Categories: Medicine

Macrophage extracellular trap formation promoted by platelet activation is a key mediator of rhabdomyolysis-induced acute kidney injury

Nature Medicine - 8 January 2018 - 12:00am

Macrophage extracellular trap formation promoted by platelet activation is a key mediator of rhabdomyolysis-induced acute kidney injury

Macrophage extracellular trap formation promoted by platelet activation is a key mediator of rhabdomyolysis-induced acute kidney injury, Published online: 08 January 2018; doi:10.1038/nm.4462

Platelet activation after muscle trauma promotes extracellular trap release by macrophages and acute kidney injury.
Categories: Medicine

High-dimensional single-cell analysis predicts response to anti-PD-1 immunotherapy

Nature Medicine - 8 January 2018 - 12:00am

High-dimensional single-cell analysis predicts response to anti-PD-1 immunotherapy

High-dimensional single-cell analysis predicts response to anti-PD-1 immunotherapy, Published online: 08 January 2018; doi:10.1038/nm.4466

Among many populations of blood cells, high dimensional analysis using mass cytometry reveals classical monocyte frequency as strong predictors of response to PD-1 blockade therapy of melanoma.
Categories: Medicine

Suppression of luteinizing hormone enhances HSC recovery after hematopoietic injury

Nature Medicine - 8 January 2018 - 12:00am

Suppression of luteinizing hormone enhances HSC recovery after hematopoietic injury

Suppression of luteinizing hormone enhances HSC recovery after hematopoietic injury, Published online: 08 January 2018; doi:10.1038/nm.4470

A luteinizing hormone–releasing hormone antagonist, used clinically for sex-steroid inhibition, promotes quiescence of hematopoietic stem cells and thereby promotes hematopoietic recovery and survival of lethally irradiated mice.
Categories: Medicine

[Comment] Combination ART: are two drugs as good as three?

Lancet - 6 January 2018 - 12:30am
The first 10 years of the development of antiretroviral therapy (ART) were characterised by a series of studies that led to the conclusion that triple therapy was the minimum required to induce and maintain full suppression of HIV replication. Early reports of using monotherapy with a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) had shown only transient decreases in p24 antigen and arrest of HIV disease progression.1 Studies of dual NRTI therapy showed more robust responses, but again these responses were temporary and unsustained in most individuals in the studies.
Categories: Medicine

[Articles] Efficacy, safety, and tolerability of dolutegravir-rilpivirine for the maintenance of virological suppression in adults with HIV-1: phase 3, randomised, non-inferiority SWORD-1 and SWORD-2 studies

Lancet - 6 January 2018 - 12:30am
Dolutegravir-rilpivirine was non-inferior to CAR over 48 weeks in participants with HIV suppression and showed a safety profile consistent with its components. Results support the use of this two-drug regimen to maintain HIV suppression.
Categories: Medicine

[Editorial] The NHS at 70 and Alma-Ata at 40

Lancet - 6 January 2018 - 12:00am
2018 welcomes two important anniversaries for health. In the UK, the National Health Service (NHS) will be 70 years old in July, and the global health community will mark the 40th anniversary of the Alma-Ata Declaration at a conference on Oct 25–26 in Almaty, Kazakhstan. Common to both anniversaries will be recognition of universal health coverage (UHC) as a goal, and the place of primary health care in achieving that goal.
Categories: Medicine

[Editorial] Vision quest: gene therapy for inherited vision loss

Lancet - 6 January 2018 - 12:00am
Biomedical research and clinical trials are fundamentally high-stakes endeavours, the results of which are often portrayed in hyperbolic categories. Failed phase 3 trials are called epic disappointments, while successful treatments become game changers or magic bullets. Better still, they receive US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval.
Categories: Medicine

[Editorial] Tuberculosis: criteria for global leadership?

Lancet - 6 January 2018 - 12:00am
Tereza Kasaeva is to be the new Director of WHO's Global Tuberculosis (TB) Programme. She joins WHO from Russia's Ministry of Health. But instead of a warm welcome, she will arrive in Geneva amid potentially disabling controversy.
Categories: Medicine

[Comment] Renewing the focus on health care for sexually assaulted children and adolescents

Lancet - 6 January 2018 - 12:00am
Sexual assault and rape are in the media spotlight in the face of unfolding revelations of abuse of women in the entertainment industry and sports. These disclosures by public figures highlight some aspects of sexual abuse—namely, that it is often pervasive, an expression of power (rather than just about sex) and rooted in ideas of male sexual entitlement, and an experience that victims find shameful and often conceal.1,2 Far from the lights of Hollywood, many children and adolescents in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) face sexual abuse and often have little recourse to assistance.
Categories: Medicine

[Comment] The polio endgame: securing a world free of all polioviruses

Lancet - 6 January 2018 - 12:00am
The global effort to eradicate poliomyelitis has reduced the incidence of cases caused by wild poliovirus by more than 99% since its launch in 1988, from 350 000 annual cases in 125 endemic countries to 20 cases in two countries in 2017.1 More than 16 million people who would otherwise have been paralysed by poliovirus infection are today walking, and 80%2 of the world's population lives in regions certified as polio free by WHO. Wild poliovirus now circulates in only a few areas and remains endemic in Nigeria, Pakistan, and Afghanistan.
Categories: Medicine

[Comment] Offline: From 1918 to 2018—the lessons of influenza

Lancet - 6 January 2018 - 12:00am
Estimates of mortality during the 1918–20 influenza pandemic range from 20 million to 100 million deaths. Mortality between countries varied enormously. A large part of this variation was related to wealth. Resource-poor countries, with weak health systems, pervasive undernutrition, and widespread poverty, had higher death rates. When 1918 mortality rates are modelled for the modern era, an epidemic of influenza with similar virulence and pathogenicity would cause around 62 million deaths, with younger age groups especially vulnerable.
Categories: Medicine

[World Report] Syria: 7 years into a civil war

Lancet - 6 January 2018 - 12:00am
Years of conflict have killed thousands, but the toll of war on Syria's health systems extends the cost of war beyond the front lines as de-escalation efforts seem to be faltering. Sharmila Devi reports.
Categories: Medicine

Pages