Medicine

CAR T cell–induced cytokine release syndrome is mediated by macrophages and abated by IL-1 blockade

Nature Medicine - 28 May 2018 - 12:00am

CAR T cell–induced cytokine release syndrome is mediated by macrophages and abated by IL-1 blockade

CAR T cell–induced cytokine release syndrome is mediated by macrophages and abated by IL-1 blockade, Published online: 28 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0041-7

Blocking IL-1 and iNOS prevents CAR T cell–induced cytokine release syndrome.
Categories: Medicine

SHP2 is required for growth of <i>KRAS</i>-mutant non-small-cell lung cancer in vivo

Nature Medicine - 28 May 2018 - 12:00am

SHP2 is required for growth of KRAS-mutant non-small-cell lung cancer in vivo

SHP2 is required for growth of <i>KRAS</i>-mutant non-small-cell lung cancer in vivo, Published online: 28 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0023-9

Combined inhibition of SHP2 and MEK is an effective therapeutic approach in non-small-cell lung cancer.
Categories: Medicine

Targeting wild-type <i>KRAS</i>-amplified gastroesophageal cancer through combined MEK and SHP2 inhibition

Nature Medicine - 28 May 2018 - 12:00am

Targeting wild-type KRAS-amplified gastroesophageal cancer through combined MEK and SHP2 inhibition

Targeting wild-type <i>KRAS</i>-amplified gastroesophageal cancer through combined MEK and SHP2 inhibition, Published online: 28 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0022-x

Amplification of wild-type KRAS in a subset of gastroesophageal tumors drives intrinsic resistance to MAPK inhibition that can be overcome by combined targeting of MEK and SHP2.
Categories: Medicine

Monocyte-derived IL-1 and IL-6 are differentially required for cytokine-release syndrome and neurotoxicity due to CAR T cells

Nature Medicine - 28 May 2018 - 12:00am

Monocyte-derived IL-1 and IL-6 are differentially required for cytokine-release syndrome and neurotoxicity due to CAR T cells

Monocyte-derived IL-1 and IL-6 are differentially required for cytokine-release syndrome and neurotoxicity due to CAR T cells, Published online: 28 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0036-4

IL-1 blockade prevents cytokine-release syndrome and neurotoxicity by CAR T cells.
Categories: Medicine

Mutant <i>KRAS</i>-driven cancers depend on <i>PTPN11</i>/SHP2 phosphatase

Nature Medicine - 28 May 2018 - 12:00am

Mutant KRAS-driven cancers depend on PTPN11/SHP2 phosphatase

Mutant <i>KRAS</i>-driven cancers depend on <i>PTPN11</i>/SHP2 phosphatase, Published online: 28 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0024-8

The phosphatase SHP2 is required for mutant KRAS signaling in pancreatic and non-small-cell lung cancers and drives resistance to MEK inhibition.
Categories: Medicine

Resetting the epigenetic balance of Polycomb and COMPASS function at enhancers for cancer therapy

Nature Medicine - 21 May 2018 - 12:00am

Resetting the epigenetic balance of Polycomb and COMPASS function at enhancers for cancer therapy

Resetting the epigenetic balance of Polycomb and COMPASS function at enhancers for cancer therapy, Published online: 21 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0034-6

Interactions between the MLL3 histone methyltransferase and the BAP1–UTX complex set the level of histone H3K27 methylation and suggest a new therapy for MLL3-mutant cancer.
Categories: Medicine

Targeting G-quadruplex DNA as cognitive function therapy for ATR-X syndrome

Nature Medicine - 21 May 2018 - 12:00am

Targeting G-quadruplex DNA as cognitive function therapy for ATR-X syndrome

Targeting G-quadruplex DNA as cognitive function therapy for ATR-X syndrome, Published online: 21 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0018-6

In a mouse model of intellectual disability, the chromatin remodeling protein ATR-X is shown to bind to G-quadruplex DNA structures and modulate target gene expression, which can be pharmacologically targeted to restore neuronal and cognitive phenotypes in these animals.
Categories: Medicine

HIV vaccine candidate activation of hypoxia and the inflammasome in CD14<sup>+</sup> monocytes is associated with a decreased risk of SIV<sub>mac251</sub> acquisition

Nature Medicine - 21 May 2018 - 12:00am

HIV vaccine candidate activation of hypoxia and the inflammasome in CD14+ monocytes is associated with a decreased risk of SIVmac251 acquisition

HIV vaccine candidate activation of hypoxia and the inflammasome in CD14<sup>+</sup> monocytes is associated with a decreased risk of SIV<sub>mac251</sub> acquisition, Published online: 21 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0025-7

Distinct monocyte subsets associate with different outcomes of SIV vaccines.
Categories: Medicine

An immune-beige adipocyte communication via nicotinic acetylcholine receptor signaling

Nature Medicine - 21 May 2018 - 12:00am

An immune-beige adipocyte communication via nicotinic acetylcholine receptor signaling

An immune-beige adipocyte communication via nicotinic acetylcholine receptor signaling, Published online: 21 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0032-8

Inhibition of immune cell–derived acetylcholine synthesis or of its signaling via CHRNA2 in beige adipocytes reduces thermogenesis and exacerbates diet-induced obesity, suggesting a new mode of immuno–fat communication in energy metabolism.
Categories: Medicine

The reference epigenome and regulatory chromatin landscape of chronic lymphocytic leukemia

Nature Medicine - 21 May 2018 - 12:00am

The reference epigenome and regulatory chromatin landscape of chronic lymphocytic leukemia

The reference epigenome and regulatory chromatin landscape of chronic lymphocytic leukemia, Published online: 21 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0028-4

An integrated resource of (epi)genomic features in annotated chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) primary samples uncovers subgroup-specific regulatory alterations associated with clinical behavior.
Categories: Medicine

Targeting skeletal endothelium to ameliorate bone loss

Nature Medicine - 21 May 2018 - 12:00am

Targeting skeletal endothelium to ameliorate bone loss

Targeting skeletal endothelium to ameliorate bone loss, Published online: 21 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0020-z

Recombinant SLIT3 represents a new mechanistic approach to treating osteoporosis by increasing skeletal CD31hiEMCNhi vascular endothelium.
Categories: Medicine

Elevated prenatal anti-Müllerian hormone reprograms the fetus and induces polycystic ovary syndrome in adulthood

Nature Medicine - 14 May 2018 - 12:00am

Elevated prenatal anti-Müllerian hormone reprograms the fetus and induces polycystic ovary syndrome in adulthood

Elevated prenatal anti-Müllerian hormone reprograms the fetus and induces polycystic ovary syndrome in adulthood, Published online: 14 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0035-5

Excess anti-Müllerian hormone during pregnancy results in polycystic ovary syndrome-like phenotypes in female offspring, possibly explaining its pathogenesis as well as suggesting a possible therapy.
Categories: Medicine

Sleeper cells

Nature Medicine - 7 May 2018 - 12:00am

Sleeper cells

Sleeper cells, Published online: 07 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0039-1

New studies question how HIV persists in the body
Categories: Medicine

CAR T cells for childhood diffuse midline gliomas

Nature Medicine - 7 May 2018 - 12:00am

CAR T cells for childhood diffuse midline gliomas

CAR T cells for childhood diffuse midline gliomas, Published online: 07 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0031-9

Anti-GD2 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T cells may be a new and innovative approach for the treatment of pediatric H3-K27M-mutant diffuse midline gliomas.
Categories: Medicine

Adrenergic nerve degeneration in bone marrow drives aging of the hematopoietic stem cell niche

Nature Medicine - 7 May 2018 - 12:00am

Adrenergic nerve degeneration in bone marrow drives aging of the hematopoietic stem cell niche

Adrenergic nerve degeneration in bone marrow drives aging of the hematopoietic stem cell niche, Published online: 07 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0030-x

Loss of sympathetic nerve innervention of the bone marrow contributes to the aging of hematopoietic stem cells, which can be rejuvenated using an adrenergic receptor agonist.
Categories: Medicine

Targeting metabolism to treat psoriasis

Nature Medicine - 7 May 2018 - 12:00am

Targeting metabolism to treat psoriasis

Targeting metabolism to treat psoriasis, Published online: 07 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0027-5

A crucial role for glucose metabolism has been identified in wound repair and in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory skin diseases, indicating that targeting metabolism is an approach for treating psoriasis.
Categories: Medicine

MC4R agonism promotes durable weight loss in patients with leptin receptor deficiency

Nature Medicine - 7 May 2018 - 12:00am

MC4R agonism promotes durable weight loss in patients with leptin receptor deficiency

MC4R agonism promotes durable weight loss in patients with leptin receptor deficiency, Published online: 07 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0015-9

Treatment with setmelanotide, a new-generation MC4R agonist, provides durable weight loss in hyperphagic, leptin receptor–deficient patients, suggesting a pharmacological avenue to treat patients with various MC4R pathway defects.
Categories: Medicine

Redefining <i>Medicine</i>

Nature Medicine - 7 May 2018 - 12:00am

Redefining Medicine

Redefining <i>Medicine</i>, Published online: 07 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0037-3

For more than two decades, Nature Medicine has been the prime venue for publication of outstanding work in the translational space. Now the journal’s scope is evolving to embrace the clinical research that meets the challenges and complexities of contemporary medicine.
Categories: Medicine

ARID1A deficiency promotes mutability and potentiates therapeutic antitumor immunity unleashed by immune checkpoint blockade

Nature Medicine - 7 May 2018 - 12:00am

ARID1A deficiency promotes mutability and potentiates therapeutic antitumor immunity unleashed by immune checkpoint blockade

ARID1A deficiency promotes mutability and potentiates therapeutic antitumor immunity unleashed by immune checkpoint blockade, Published online: 07 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0012-z

Loss of mismatch-repair protein ARID1A in cancer correlates with high mutation load & checkpoint blockade response, complementing MSI-based prognosis.
Categories: Medicine

The best Cas scenario

Nature Medicine - 7 May 2018 - 12:00am

The best Cas scenario

The best Cas scenario, Published online: 07 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0038-2

Finding poetry in gene editing and ways to improve it
Categories: Medicine

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