Medicine

Dysregulation of a long noncoding RNA reduces leptin leading to a leptin-responsive form of obesity

Nature Medicine - 6 March 2019 - 12:00am

Dysregulation of a long noncoding RNA reduces leptin leading to a leptin-responsive form of obesity

Dysregulation of a long noncoding RNA reduces leptin leading to a leptin-responsive form of obesity, Published online: 06 March 2019; doi:10.1038/s41591-019-0370-1

Defects in the regulation of leptin gene expression can lead to a hypoleptinemic, leptin-responsive form of obesity.
Categories: Medicine

Targeting epigenetic modifications in cancer therapy: erasing the roadmap to cancer

Nature Medicine - 6 March 2019 - 12:00am

Targeting epigenetic modifications in cancer therapy: erasing the roadmap to cancer

Targeting epigenetic modifications in cancer therapy: erasing the roadmap to cancer, Published online: 06 March 2019; doi:10.1038/s41591-019-0376-8

Targeting epigenetic modifications is an effective cancer therapeutic approach and can be combined with other therapeutics for maximal effect.
Categories: Medicine

E-cigarettes to help smoking cessation

Nature Medicine - 6 March 2019 - 12:00am

E-cigarettes to help smoking cessation

E-cigarettes to help smoking cessation, Published online: 06 March 2019; doi:10.1038/s41591-019-0395-5

E-cigarettes to help smoking cessation
Categories: Medicine

Developmental origins and emerging therapeutic opportunities for childhood cancer

Nature Medicine - 6 March 2019 - 12:00am

Developmental origins and emerging therapeutic opportunities for childhood cancer

Developmental origins and emerging therapeutic opportunities for childhood cancer, Published online: 06 March 2019; doi:10.1038/s41591-019-0383-9

Childhood cancers are developmentally distinct from adult cancers and arise from cellular reprogramming as a result of epigenetic mutations or gene fusions, providing unique therapeutic opportunities.
Categories: Medicine

Genomic correlates of response to immune checkpoint blockade

Nature Medicine - 6 March 2019 - 12:00am

Genomic correlates of response to immune checkpoint blockade

Genomic correlates of response to immune checkpoint blockade, Published online: 06 March 2019; doi:10.1038/s41591-019-0382-x

Responders and non-responders to cancer immunotherapy can be identified through a range of genomic markers.
Categories: Medicine

Think globally about cancer

Nature Medicine - 6 March 2019 - 12:00am

Think globally about cancer

Think globally about cancer, Published online: 06 March 2019; doi:10.1038/s41591-019-0402-x

Cancer surveillance programs have reported a global downward trend in cancer mortality rates for most common tumor types. However, startling geographic inequalities exist, and some cancers continue to pose a challenge. Ensuring global access to high-quality diagnostic and treatment approaches is needed to make decreasing cancer deaths a more widespread trend.
Categories: Medicine

Mosquito deterrent

Nature Medicine - 6 March 2019 - 12:00am

Mosquito deterrent

Mosquito deterrent, Published online: 06 March 2019; doi:10.1038/s41591-019-0398-2

Mosquito deterrent
Categories: Medicine

Standing on the shoulders of giants

Nature Medicine - 6 March 2019 - 12:00am

Standing on the shoulders of giants

Standing on the shoulders of giants, Published online: 06 March 2019; doi:10.1038/s41591-019-0389-3

Samra Turajlic is a consultant medical oncologist at the Royal Marsden National Health Service Foundation Trust and a clinician–scientist at the Francis Crick Institute.
Categories: Medicine

Glutaminyl cyclase is an enzymatic modifier of the CD47- SIRPα axis and a target for cancer immunotherapy

Nature Medicine - 4 March 2019 - 12:00am

Glutaminyl cyclase is an enzymatic modifier of the CD47- SIRPα axis and a target for cancer immunotherapy

Glutaminyl cyclase is an enzymatic modifier of the CD47- SIRPα axis and a target for cancer immunotherapy, Published online: 04 March 2019; doi:10.1038/s41591-019-0356-z

QPCTL is a modifier of CD47-SIRPα binding and its blockade enhances macrophage- and neutrophil-mediated antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity towards tumor cells.
Categories: Medicine

Protective autophagy elicited by RAF→MEK→ERK inhibition suggests a treatment strategy for RAS-driven cancers

Nature Medicine - 4 March 2019 - 12:00am

Protective autophagy elicited by RAF→MEK→ERK inhibition suggests a treatment strategy for RAS-driven cancers

Protective autophagy elicited by RAF→MEK→ERK inhibition suggests a treatment strategy for RAS-driven cancers, Published online: 04 March 2019; doi:10.1038/s41591-019-0367-9

Targeted inhibition of RAF–MEK–ERK signaling induces autophagy through the LKB1–AMPK axis, creating a therapeutic vulnerability that can be exploited for treating patients with pancreatic cancer and potentially other RAS-mutant tumors.
Categories: Medicine

Clinical genome sequencing uncovers potentially targetable truncations and fusions of <i>MAP3K8</i> in spitzoid and other melanomas

Nature Medicine - 4 March 2019 - 12:00am

Clinical genome sequencing uncovers potentially targetable truncations and fusions of MAP3K8 in spitzoid and other melanomas

Clinical genome sequencing uncovers potentially targetable truncations and fusions of <i>MAP3K8</i> in spitzoid and other melanomas, Published online: 04 March 2019; doi:10.1038/s41591-019-0373-y

Rearrangements in MAP3K8 respond to MEK inhibition and represent the most common genetic driver in pediatric spitzoid melanoma, and in some adult melanomas lacking other MAPK alterations and for which clinical testing is warranted.
Categories: Medicine

Combination of ERK and autophagy inhibition as a treatment approach for pancreatic cancer

Nature Medicine - 4 March 2019 - 12:00am

Combination of ERK and autophagy inhibition as a treatment approach for pancreatic cancer

Combination of ERK and autophagy inhibition as a treatment approach for pancreatic cancer, Published online: 04 March 2019; doi:10.1038/s41591-019-0368-8

Blockade of ERK signaling in KRAS-mutant pancreatic cancer increases the dependence on autophagic flux through different mechanisms and provides a rationale for combinatorial targeting with autophagy inhibitors.
Categories: Medicine

Siglec-15 as an immune suppressor and potential target for normalization cancer immunotherapy

Nature Medicine - 4 March 2019 - 12:00am

Siglec-15 as an immune suppressor and potential target for normalization cancer immunotherapy

Siglec-15 as an immune suppressor and potential target for normalization cancer immunotherapy, Published online: 04 March 2019; doi:10.1038/s41591-019-0374-x

Blockade of sialic acid-binding protein Siglec-15 expressed in cancer and tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells reverses immunesupression and represents a novel target for cancer immunotherapy independent from the PD-1/PD-L1 axis.
Categories: Medicine

IL1R1 is required for celastrol’s leptin-sensitization and antiobesity effects

Nature Medicine - 4 March 2019 - 12:00am

IL1R1 is required for celastrol’s leptin-sensitization and antiobesity effects

IL1R1 is required for celastrol’s leptin-sensitization and antiobesity effects, Published online: 04 March 2019; doi:10.1038/s41591-019-0358-x

IL1R1 is a gatekeeper for celastrol’s metabolic actions.
Categories: Medicine

Time to revisit oligodendrocytes in multiple sclerosis

Nature Medicine - 25 February 2019 - 12:00am

Time to revisit oligodendrocytes in multiple sclerosis

Time to revisit oligodendrocytes in multiple sclerosis, Published online: 25 February 2019; doi:10.1038/s41591-019-0388-4

The analysis of autopsy material from individuals with multiple sclerosis with single-cell transcriptomics and 14C carbon dating calls for a reevaluation of mature oligodendrocytes in myelin repair.
Categories: Medicine

Expanded non-invasive prenatal diagnostics

Nature Medicine - 25 February 2019 - 12:00am

Expanded non-invasive prenatal diagnostics

Expanded non-invasive prenatal diagnostics, Published online: 25 February 2019; doi:10.1038/s41591-019-0386-6

Non-invasive prenatal diagnostics allow for the successful identification of paternally inherited and de novo mongenic diseases using circulating cell-free DNA.
Categories: Medicine

A single dose of neoadjuvant PD-1 blockade predicts clinical outcomes in resectable melanoma

Nature Medicine - 25 February 2019 - 12:00am

A single dose of neoadjuvant PD-1 blockade predicts clinical outcomes in resectable melanoma

A single dose of neoadjuvant PD-1 blockade predicts clinical outcomes in resectable melanoma, Published online: 25 February 2019; doi:10.1038/s41591-019-0357-y

Neoadjuvant PD-1 blockade in patients with resectable melanoma followed by adjuvant maintenance results in early immunological effects driving clinical benefit and reveals transcriptional and genomic mechanisms of response.
Categories: Medicine

Gain-of-function mutation of microRNA-140 in human skeletal dysplasia

Nature Medicine - 25 February 2019 - 12:00am

Gain-of-function mutation of microRNA-140 in human skeletal dysplasia

Gain-of-function mutation of microRNA-140 in human skeletal dysplasia, Published online: 25 February 2019; doi:10.1038/s41591-019-0353-2

Clinical insights from patients with a rare genetic skeletal disorder led to the discovery of the first case of a pathogenic gain-of-function miRNA mutation.
Categories: Medicine

Publisher Correction: Non-invasive prenatal sequencing for multiple Mendelian monogenic disorders using circulating cell-free fetal DNA

Nature Medicine - 20 February 2019 - 12:00am

Publisher Correction: Non-invasive prenatal sequencing for multiple Mendelian monogenic disorders using circulating cell-free fetal DNA

Publisher Correction: Non-invasive prenatal sequencing for multiple Mendelian monogenic disorders using circulating cell-free fetal DNA, Published online: 20 February 2019; doi:10.1038/s41591-019-0391-9

Publisher Correction: Non-invasive prenatal sequencing for multiple Mendelian monogenic disorders using circulating cell-free fetal DNA
Categories: Medicine

Development of a CRISPR/Cas9-based therapy for Hutchinson–Gilford progeria syndrome

Nature Medicine - 18 February 2019 - 12:00am

Development of a CRISPR/Cas9-based therapy for Hutchinson–Gilford progeria syndrome

Development of a CRISPR/Cas9-based therapy for Hutchinson–Gilford progeria syndrome, Published online: 18 February 2019; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0338-6

AAV-mediated CRISPR/Cas9 therapy extends life span and ameliorates disease-related phenotypes in a mouse model of Hutchinson–Gilford progeria syndrome.
Categories: Medicine

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