Medicine

Early antiretroviral therapy limits SIV reservoir establishment to delay or prevent post-treatment viral rebound

Nature Medicine - 6 August 2018 - 12:00am

Early antiretroviral therapy limits SIV reservoir establishment to delay or prevent post-treatment viral rebound

Early antiretroviral therapy limits SIV reservoir establishment to delay or prevent post-treatment viral rebound, Published online: 06 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0130-7

Early and prolonged administration of antiretroviral therapy to SIV-infected and post-exposure-vaccinated rhesus macaques was associated with absence or delay of detectable virus after therapy interruption.
Categories: Medicine

Predicting preterm birth

Nature Medicine - 6 August 2018 - 12:00am

Predicting preterm birth

Predicting preterm birth, Published online: 06 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0154-z

Predicting preterm birth
Categories: Medicine

Learning from bacterial competition in the host to develop antimicrobials

Nature Medicine - 6 August 2018 - 12:00am

Learning from bacterial competition in the host to develop antimicrobials

Learning from bacterial competition in the host to develop antimicrobials, Published online: 06 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0145-0

The delicate balance of microbial communities is maintained by competitive mechanisms that provide an avenue for new antimicrobial development.
Categories: Medicine

An antiviral for smallpox

Nature Medicine - 6 August 2018 - 12:00am

An antiviral for smallpox

An antiviral for smallpox, Published online: 06 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0152-1

An antiviral for smallpox
Categories: Medicine

Cellular origin of human cardiac macrophage populations

Nature Medicine - 6 August 2018 - 12:00am

Cellular origin of human cardiac macrophage populations

Cellular origin of human cardiac macrophage populations, Published online: 06 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0143-2

The human heart contains two macrophage populations with distinct self-maintenance and inflammatory functions. A shift in the balance between these macrophage populations correlates with left-ventricle remodeling and systolic function in patients with heart failure.
Categories: Medicine

Keep off-target effects in focus

Nature Medicine - 6 August 2018 - 12:00am

Keep off-target effects in focus

Keep off-target effects in focus, Published online: 06 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0150-3

Concerns about potential unintended DNA changes that might accidentally arise from CRISPR gene editing have emerged to varying degrees with the advent of the technology. As new therapies move from bench to bedside, scientists need to redouble their efforts to document the spectrum of these off-target effects while also acknowledging the reality that a certain degree of risk is embedded in many promising and successful medical therapies.
Categories: Medicine

Cell therapy for spinal cord injury

Nature Medicine - 6 August 2018 - 12:00am

Cell therapy for spinal cord injury

Cell therapy for spinal cord injury, Published online: 06 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0155-y

Cell therapy for spinal cord injury
Categories: Medicine

Blood-based tumor mutational burden as a predictor of clinical benefit in non-small-cell lung cancer patients treated with atezolizumab

Nature Medicine - 6 August 2018 - 12:00am

Blood-based tumor mutational burden as a predictor of clinical benefit in non-small-cell lung cancer patients treated with atezolizumab

Blood-based tumor mutational burden as a predictor of clinical benefit in non-small-cell lung cancer patients treated with atezolizumab, Published online: 06 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0134-3

A blood-based DNA sequencing assay to infer tumor mutational burden in the absence of tumor biopsy predicts response to PD-L1 blockade in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer.
Categories: Medicine

Discovery cycle

Nature Medicine - 1 August 2018 - 12:00am

Discovery cycle

Discovery cycle, Published online: 01 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0149-9

Period-tracking apps offer new insights on women’s health.
Categories: Medicine

The exerkine apelin reverses age-associated sarcopenia

Nature Medicine - 30 July 2018 - 12:00am

The exerkine apelin reverses age-associated sarcopenia

The exerkine apelin reverses age-associated sarcopenia, Published online: 30 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0131-6

The muscle-secreted, exercise-induced peptide hormone apelin decreases with aging and sarcopenia, and its repletion in aged mice with recombinant protein improves muscle mass and function.
Categories: Medicine

Pondering privatization

Nature Medicine - 30 July 2018 - 12:00am

Pondering privatization

Pondering privatization, Published online: 30 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0148-x

Researchers hope the Veterans Affairs’ research agenda won’t change much if it integrates more private care.
Categories: Medicine

Experimental microbial dysbiosis does not promote disease progression in SIV-infected macaques

Nature Medicine - 30 July 2018 - 12:00am

Experimental microbial dysbiosis does not promote disease progression in SIV-infected macaques

Experimental microbial dysbiosis does not promote disease progression in SIV-infected macaques, Published online: 30 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0132-5

Antibiotic treatment of SIV-infected nonhuman primates shows that inducing bacterial dysbiosis in the gut—similar to that seen in HIV infection—does not promote disease progression, questioning its potential role in progression to HIV/AIDS.
Categories: Medicine

Cytotoxic CD8<sup>+</sup> T cells recognize and kill <i>Plasmodium vivax</i>–infected reticulocytes

Nature Medicine - 23 July 2018 - 12:00am

Cytotoxic CD8+ T cells recognize and kill Plasmodium vivax–infected reticulocytes

Cytotoxic CD8<sup>+</sup> T cells recognize and kill <i>Plasmodium vivax</i>–infected reticulocytes, Published online: 23 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0117-4

T cells kill blood-stage Plasmodium vivax, providing a rationale for the development of a T cell vaccine against this parasite.
Categories: Medicine

Oncogenic hijacking of the stress response machinery in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia

Nature Medicine - 23 July 2018 - 12:00am

Oncogenic hijacking of the stress response machinery in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia

Oncogenic hijacking of the stress response machinery in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, Published online: 23 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0105-8

Oncogenic NOTCH1 controls transcriptional activation of the heat shock response in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and uncovers potential biomarkers of sensitivity to HSP90 inhibition.
Categories: Medicine

Interleukin-1β has atheroprotective effects in advanced atherosclerotic lesions of mice

Nature Medicine - 23 July 2018 - 12:00am

Interleukin-1β has atheroprotective effects in advanced atherosclerotic lesions of mice

Interleukin-1β has atheroprotective effects in advanced atherosclerotic lesions of mice, Published online: 23 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0124-5

Interleukin-1β promotes an atheroprotective phenotype in late-stage lesions of mice, suggesting the possibility of deleterious effects of interleukin-1β blockade in the setting of myocardial infarction.
Categories: Medicine

Enhancer mapping uncovers phenotypic heterogeneity and evolution in patients with luminal breast cancer

Nature Medicine - 23 July 2018 - 12:00am

Enhancer mapping uncovers phenotypic heterogeneity and evolution in patients with luminal breast cancer

Enhancer mapping uncovers phenotypic heterogeneity and evolution in patients with luminal breast cancer, Published online: 23 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0091-x

Topographic analysis of the active regulatory landscape in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer uncovers a role for transcription factor YY1 in modulating phenotypic heterogeneity during tumor evolution and endocrine resistance.
Categories: Medicine

Metformin inhibits gluconeogenesis via a redox-dependent mechanism in vivo

Nature Medicine - 23 July 2018 - 12:00am

Metformin inhibits gluconeogenesis via a redox-dependent mechanism in vivo

Metformin inhibits gluconeogenesis via a redox-dependent mechanism in vivo, Published online: 23 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0125-4

Using 13C-labeled substrates in vivo, this group shows that metformin inhibits mG3PDH to reduce hepatic gluconeogenesis and lower glycemia by altering the redox potential of the cytosol of hepatocytes rather than affecting substrate availability.
Categories: Medicine

Tumor innate immunity primed by specific interferon-stimulated endogenous retroviruses

Nature Medicine - 23 July 2018 - 12:00am

Tumor innate immunity primed by specific interferon-stimulated endogenous retroviruses

Tumor innate immunity primed by specific interferon-stimulated endogenous retroviruses, Published online: 23 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0116-5

Retroelements located in antisense orientation within interferon-regulated genes are reactivated in a subset of cancer cells and initiate a STING- and MAVS-dependent feed-forward inflammatory loop, driving antitumor immunity and exhaustion.
Categories: Medicine

Comprehensive molecular characterization of clinical responses to PD-1 inhibition in metastatic gastric cancer

Nature Medicine - 16 July 2018 - 12:00am

Comprehensive molecular characterization of clinical responses to PD-1 inhibition in metastatic gastric cancer

Comprehensive molecular characterization of clinical responses to PD-1 inhibition in metastatic gastric cancer, Published online: 16 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0101-z

Microsatellite instability and Epstein–Barr virus positivity represent novel biomarkers of clinical response to PD-1 blockade in patients with metastatic gastric cancer.
Categories: Medicine

Clonal heterogeneity of acute myeloid leukemia treated with the IDH2 inhibitor enasidenib

Nature Medicine - 16 July 2018 - 12:00am

Clonal heterogeneity of acute myeloid leukemia treated with the IDH2 inhibitor enasidenib

Clonal heterogeneity of acute myeloid leukemia treated with the IDH2 inhibitor enasidenib, Published online: 16 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0115-6

Mapping of the clonal structure of bone marrow cells in patients with acute myeloid leukemia treated with the IDH2 inhibitor enasidenib reveals heterogeneity in the cellular differentiation response and in mechanisms of relapse.
Categories: Medicine

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