Immunology

The IL-15–AKT–XBP1s signaling pathway contributes to effector functions and survival in human NK cells

Nature Immunology - 10 December 2018 - 12:00am

The IL-15–AKT–XBP1s signaling pathway contributes to effector functions and survival in human NK cells

The IL-15–AKT–XBP1s signaling pathway contributes to effector functions and survival in human NK cells, Published online: 10 December 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-018-0265-1

Yu and colleagues show that the transcription factor XBP1s positively regulates the cytolytic activity of human NK cells and is required for the IL-15-mediated survival of NK cells.
Categories: Immunology

Myocardial infarction cell by cell

Nature Immunology - 10 December 2018 - 12:00am

Myocardial infarction cell by cell

Myocardial infarction cell by cell, Published online: 10 December 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-018-0277-x

While important evidence for the role of myeloid cells in myocardial infarction has accumulated in recent years, single-cell transcriptomics fully delineates the functional heterogeneity of the myeloid cell compartment.
Categories: Immunology

Histone demethylase LSD1 is required for germinal center formation and BCL6-driven lymphomagenesis

Nature Immunology - 10 December 2018 - 12:00am

Histone demethylase LSD1 is required for germinal center formation and BCL6-driven lymphomagenesis

Histone demethylase LSD1 is required for germinal center formation and BCL6-driven lymphomagenesis, Published online: 10 December 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-018-0273-1

Germinal center B cells undergo reiterative rounds of proliferation and selection. Melnick and colleagues show that the histone demethylase LSD1 is necessary for this reiterative process via its interactions with the transcription factor BCL6.
Categories: Immunology

G3BP1 promotes DNA binding and activation of cGAS

Nature Immunology - 3 December 2018 - 12:00am

G3BP1 promotes DNA binding and activation of cGAS

G3BP1 promotes DNA binding and activation of cGAS, Published online: 03 December 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-018-0262-4

Li and colleagues show that G3BP1, a protein known to regulate the RNA stress response, is critical for DNA sensing and efficient activation of the cytoplasmic DNA sensor cGAS.
Categories: Immunology

The establishment of resident memory B cells in the lung requires local antigen encounter

Nature Immunology - 3 December 2018 - 12:00am

The establishment of resident memory B cells in the lung requires local antigen encounter

The establishment of resident memory B cells in the lung requires local antigen encounter, Published online: 03 December 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-018-0260-6

Tissue-resident memory cells are functionally distinct from lymph node memory cells. Randall and colleagues show that lung infection establishes B cell memory in situ and confers superior responses following challenge infection, which will inform vaccine design for respiratory viruses.
Categories: Immunology

Macrophage de novo NAD<sup>+</sup> synthesis specifies immune function in aging and inflammation

Nature Immunology - 26 November 2018 - 12:00am

Macrophage de novo NAD+ synthesis specifies immune function in aging and inflammation

Macrophage de novo NAD<sup>+</sup> synthesis specifies immune function in aging and inflammation, Published online: 26 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-018-0255-3

Macrophages alter their metabolism in response to infection. The authors show that resting macrophages generate nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide via de novo synthesis, but activated and aged cells suppress the rate-limiting enzyme quinolinate phosphoribosyltransferase to regulate mitochondrial and immunological functions.
Categories: Immunology

Alarmin S100A11 initiates a chemokine response to the human pathogen <i>Toxoplasma gondii</i>

Nature Immunology - 19 November 2018 - 12:00am

Alarmin S100A11 initiates a chemokine response to the human pathogen Toxoplasma gondii

Alarmin S100A11 initiates a chemokine response to the human pathogen <i>Toxoplasma gondii</i>, Published online: 19 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-018-0250-8

Yarovinsky and colleagues identify the alarmin S100A11, which is released from Toxoplasma gondii–infected cells, as the trigger for immune responses in humans. S100A11 induces expression of the chemokine CCL2, which recruits inflammatory CCR2+ monocytes to the sites of infection.
Categories: Immunology

DEL-1 promotes macrophage efferocytosis and clearance of inflammation

Nature Immunology - 19 November 2018 - 12:00am

DEL-1 promotes macrophage efferocytosis and clearance of inflammation

DEL-1 promotes macrophage efferocytosis and clearance of inflammation, Published online: 19 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-018-0249-1

DEL-1 protein interferes with leukocyte adhesion to prevent inflammation. Chavakis and colleagues now show that DEL-1 contributes to tissue resolution after inflammation by promoting macrophage-mediated efferocytosis and M2-like pro-resolving activities.
Categories: Immunology

Publisher Correction: An immunoregulatory and tissue-residency program modulated by c-MAF in human T<sub>H</sub>17 cells

Nature Immunology - 17 November 2018 - 12:00am

Publisher Correction: An immunoregulatory and tissue-residency program modulated by c-MAF in human TH17 cells

Publisher Correction: An immunoregulatory and tissue-residency program modulated by c-MAF in human T<sub>H</sub>17 cells, Published online: 17 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-018-0264-2

Publisher Correction: An immunoregulatory and tissue-residency program modulated by c-MAF in human TH17 cells
Categories: Immunology

Rules of engagement

Nature Immunology - 16 November 2018 - 12:00am

Rules of engagement

Rules of engagement, Published online: 16 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-018-0267-z

Rules of engagement
Categories: Immunology

The epithelial immune microenvironment (EIME) in atopic dermatitis and psoriasis

Nature Immunology - 16 November 2018 - 12:00am

The epithelial immune microenvironment (EIME) in atopic dermatitis and psoriasis

The epithelial immune microenvironment (EIME) in atopic dermatitis and psoriasis, Published online: 16 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-018-0256-2

Kabashima and colleagues review inflammatory skin disorders by discussing the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis and psoriasis.
Categories: Immunology

Metabolic crosstalk

Nature Immunology - 16 November 2018 - 12:00am

Metabolic crosstalk

Metabolic crosstalk, Published online: 16 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-018-0268-y

Metabolic crosstalk
Categories: Immunology

Microglial activity in brain injury

Nature Immunology - 16 November 2018 - 12:00am

Microglial activity in brain injury

Microglial activity in brain injury, Published online: 16 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-018-0270-4

Microglial activity in brain injury
Categories: Immunology

Villus regional heterogeneity

Nature Immunology - 16 November 2018 - 12:00am

Villus regional heterogeneity

Villus regional heterogeneity, Published online: 16 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-018-0266-0

Villus regional heterogeneity
Categories: Immunology

LAG-3: a very singular immune checkpoint

Nature Immunology - 16 November 2018 - 12:00am

LAG-3: a very singular immune checkpoint

LAG-3: a very singular immune checkpoint, Published online: 16 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-018-0257-1

The mechanism of action of the lymphocyte checkpoint protein LAG-3 was always rather mysterious. It now seems to operate at least in part by recognizing and suppressing responses to stable complexes of peptide and major histocompatibility complex class II.
Categories: Immunology

T<sub>reg</sub> cell tune-up

Nature Immunology - 16 November 2018 - 12:00am

Treg cell tune-up

T<sub>reg</sub> cell tune-up, Published online: 16 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-018-0271-3

Treg cell tune-up
Categories: Immunology

The γδTCR combines innate immunity with adaptive immunity by utilizing spatially distinct regions for agonist selection and antigen responsiveness

Nature Immunology - 12 November 2018 - 12:00am

The γδTCR combines innate immunity with adaptive immunity by utilizing spatially distinct regions for agonist selection and antigen responsiveness

The γδTCR combines innate immunity with adaptive immunity by utilizing spatially distinct regions for agonist selection and antigen responsiveness, Published online: 12 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-018-0253-5

Hayday and colleagues show that the responsiveness of mouse and human γδ IELs to Btnl or BTNL proteins is mediated by germline-encoded motifs within the cognate TCR Vγ chains, while Vγ chain motifs generated by somatic gene rearrangement remain available for nominal antigen binding.
Categories: Immunology

TCF-1 takes HEB up a Notch

Nature Immunology - 12 November 2018 - 12:00am

TCF-1 takes HEB up a Notch

TCF-1 takes HEB up a Notch, Published online: 12 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-018-0263-3

Transcription factors orchestrate stage-specific gene expression during development. Two such factors, TCF-1 and HEB, collaborate at the protein and genomic levels to regulate gene expression in developing thymocytes.
Categories: Immunology

Metabolic reprogramming of natural killer cells in obesity limits antitumor responses

Nature Immunology - 12 November 2018 - 12:00am

Metabolic reprogramming of natural killer cells in obesity limits antitumor responses

Metabolic reprogramming of natural killer cells in obesity limits antitumor responses, Published online: 12 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-018-0251-7

Obesity is a risk factor for cancer. Lynch and colleagues show that obesity alters the cellular metabolism of natural killer cells and decreases their antitumor surveillance and effector responses.
Categories: Immunology

TCF-1 and HEB cooperate to establish the epigenetic and transcription profiles of CD4<sup>+</sup>CD8<sup>+</sup> thymocytes

Nature Immunology - 12 November 2018 - 12:00am

TCF-1 and HEB cooperate to establish the epigenetic and transcription profiles of CD4+CD8+ thymocytes

TCF-1 and HEB cooperate to establish the epigenetic and transcription profiles of CD4<sup>+</sup>CD8<sup>+</sup> thymocytes, Published online: 12 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-018-0254-4

Thymocyte development requires a complex orchestration of multiple transcription factors. Gournari and colleagues find that Tcf-1 and HEB cooperate to establish the epigenetic and transcription profiles of CD4+CD8+ thymocytes
Categories: Immunology

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