Immunology

A TCR mechanotransduction signaling loop induces negative selection in the thymus

Nature Immunology - 12 November 2018 - 12:00am

A TCR mechanotransduction signaling loop induces negative selection in the thymus

A TCR mechanotransduction signaling loop induces negative selection in the thymus, Published online: 12 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-018-0259-z

Zhu and colleagues show that negative-selection ligands induce cooperative TCR–pMHC–CD8 trimolecular ‘catch bonds’, whereas positive-selection ligands induce TCR–pMHC and pMHC–CD8 bimolecular ‘slip bonds’.
Categories: Immunology

CD8 helps TCR catch slippery self pMHC

Nature Immunology - 12 November 2018 - 12:00am

CD8 helps TCR catch slippery self pMHC

CD8 helps TCR catch slippery self pMHC, Published online: 12 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-018-0261-5

A new model proposes that an applied force allows the co-receptor CD8 and the kinase Lck to selectively stabilize TCR interactions with negatively selecting ligands, but not those with positively selecting ligands, during the negative selection of self-reactive thymocytes.
Categories: Immunology

Autocrine–paracrine prostaglandin E<sub>2</sub> signaling restricts TLR4 internalization and TRIF signaling

Nature Immunology - 5 November 2018 - 12:00am

Autocrine–paracrine prostaglandin E2 signaling restricts TLR4 internalization and TRIF signaling

Autocrine–paracrine prostaglandin E<sub>2</sub> signaling restricts TLR4 internalization and TRIF signaling, Published online: 05 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-018-0243-7

Endosomal TLR4 signaling activates type I interferons via a TRIF-dependent pathway. Vogel and colleagues identify autocrine production of PGE2–EP4–cAMP as a negative regulator of the TRIF pathway that suppresses IFN-β expression induced by Gram-negative bacteria.
Categories: Immunology

Human retinoic acid–regulated CD161<sup>+</sup> regulatory T cells support wound repair in intestinal mucosa

Nature Immunology - 5 November 2018 - 12:00am

Human retinoic acid–regulated CD161+ regulatory T cells support wound repair in intestinal mucosa

Human retinoic acid–regulated CD161<sup>+</sup> regulatory T cells support wound repair in intestinal mucosa, Published online: 05 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-018-0230-z

Treg cells are essential for enforcing peripheral tolerance but can also influence tissue regeneration. Afzali and colleagues use high-dimensional analysis to describe a distinct population of CD161+ human Treg cells involved in wound healing of the intestinal mucosa.
Categories: Immunology

Tumors sweeten macrophages with acids

Nature Immunology - 5 November 2018 - 12:00am

Tumors sweeten macrophages with acids

Tumors sweeten macrophages with acids, Published online: 05 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-018-0258-0

Acidic microenvironments induced by highly glycolytic tumor cells promote the noninflammatory polarization of tumor-associated macrophages, which leads to immunoevasion.
Categories: Immunology

Tumor immunoevasion via acidosis-dependent induction of regulatory tumor-associated macrophages

Nature Immunology - 5 November 2018 - 12:00am

Tumor immunoevasion via acidosis-dependent induction of regulatory tumor-associated macrophages

Tumor immunoevasion via acidosis-dependent induction of regulatory tumor-associated macrophages, Published online: 05 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-018-0226-8

Tumors can vary in both their control by immunosurveillance and their glycolytic activity. Bopp and colleagues demonstrate that highly glycolytic tumors acidify their microenvironment and use this to initiate a mechanism of localized immunosuppression.
Categories: Immunology

Bcl11b sets pro-T cell fate by site-specific cofactor recruitment and by repressing <i>Id2</i> and <i>Zbtb16</i>

Nature Immunology - 30 October 2018 - 12:00am

Bcl11b sets pro-T cell fate by site-specific cofactor recruitment and by repressing Id2 and Zbtb16

Bcl11b sets pro-T cell fate by site-specific cofactor recruitment and by repressing <i>Id2</i> and <i>Zbtb16</i>, Published online: 30 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-018-0238-4

Bcl11b is needed to establish T cell–lineage identity. Rothenberg and colleagues provide a comprehensive analysis of Bcl11b–cofactor interactions and reveal the functional relevance of direct and indirect Bcl11b binding activity in thymocytes.
Categories: Immunology

Activated β-catenin in Foxp3<sup>+</sup> regulatory T cells links inflammatory environments to autoimmunity

Nature Immunology - 29 October 2018 - 12:00am

Activated β-catenin in Foxp3+ regulatory T cells links inflammatory environments to autoimmunity

Activated β-catenin in Foxp3<sup>+</sup> regulatory T cells links inflammatory environments to autoimmunity, Published online: 29 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-018-0236-6

Regulatory T cells (Treg cells) can destabilize in inflammatory environments. Sumida et al. show that β-catenin signaling perturbs Treg cell function in patients with multiple sclerosis and under experimental high-salt conditions.
Categories: Immunology

Myeloid-derived suppressor cells control B cell accumulation in the central nervous system during autoimmunity

Nature Immunology - 29 October 2018 - 12:00am

Myeloid-derived suppressor cells control B cell accumulation in the central nervous system during autoimmunity

Myeloid-derived suppressor cells control B cell accumulation in the central nervous system during autoimmunity, Published online: 29 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-018-0237-5

Korn and colleagues show that PMN-MDSCs restrain B cell accumulation in the central nervous system in autoimmune inflammation.
Categories: Immunology

Inflammation induced by influenza virus impairs human innate immune control of pneumococcus

Nature Immunology - 29 October 2018 - 12:00am

Inflammation induced by influenza virus impairs human innate immune control of pneumococcus

Inflammation induced by influenza virus impairs human innate immune control of pneumococcus, Published online: 29 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-018-0231-y

Pneumococcal carriage in the upper respiratory tract is an important determinant of influenza severity. Jochems et al. use human systems analysis to show that influenza-induced inflammation increases bacterial burden in the nasal cavity with implications for secondary bacterial pneumonia.
Categories: Immunology

LAG-3 inhibits the activation of CD4<sup>+</sup> T cells that recognize stable pMHCII through its conformation-dependent recognition of pMHCII

Nature Immunology - 22 October 2018 - 12:00am

LAG-3 inhibits the activation of CD4+ T cells that recognize stable pMHCII through its conformation-dependent recognition of pMHCII

LAG-3 inhibits the activation of CD4<sup>+</sup> T cells that recognize stable pMHCII through its conformation-dependent recognition of pMHCII, Published online: 22 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-018-0217-9

LAG-3 is a co-inhibitory receptor on T cells, but its mode of action is controversial. Okazaki and colleagues demonstrate that LAG-3 preferentially binds stable MHC class II complexes and thereby selectively maintains tolerance of self-reactive T cells.
Categories: Immunology

CD153 combats Mtb infection

Nature Immunology - 17 October 2018 - 12:00am

CD153 combats Mtb infection

CD153 combats Mtb infection, Published online: 17 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-018-0246-4

CD153 combats Mtb infection
Categories: Immunology

The value of transcriptomics in advancing knowledge of the immune response and diagnosis in tuberculosis

Nature Immunology - 17 October 2018 - 12:00am

The value of transcriptomics in advancing knowledge of the immune response and diagnosis in tuberculosis

The value of transcriptomics in advancing knowledge of the immune response and diagnosis in tuberculosis, Published online: 17 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-018-0225-9

O’Garra and colleagues describe the immune response to infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis revealed through the use of transcriptomics and the value of blood transcriptional gene signatures for the diagnosis of tuberculosis.
Categories: Immunology

Antibodies and metabolites

Nature Immunology - 17 October 2018 - 12:00am

Antibodies and metabolites

Antibodies and metabolites, Published online: 17 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-018-0244-6

Antibodies and metabolites
Categories: Immunology

Malaria prevention: from immunological concepts to effective vaccines and protective antibodies

Nature Immunology - 17 October 2018 - 12:00am

Malaria prevention: from immunological concepts to effective vaccines and protective antibodies

Malaria prevention: from immunological concepts to effective vaccines and protective antibodies, Published online: 17 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-018-0228-6

Malaria remains a disease of global importance, and a fully protective vaccine is elusive. In this Focus Review, Cockburn and Seder describe how insights into the biology of malaria biology may lead to the design of an effective vaccine.
Categories: Immunology

The immune response against flaviviruses

Nature Immunology - 17 October 2018 - 12:00am

The immune response against flaviviruses

The immune response against flaviviruses, Published online: 17 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-018-0210-3

Screaton and colleagues discuss the role of the adaptive immune response against flaviviruses in protection and pathogenesis, with emphasis on cross-reactive T cell and antibody responses.
Categories: Immunology

Targeting cancer by Siglecs

Nature Immunology - 17 October 2018 - 12:00am

Targeting cancer by Siglecs

Targeting cancer by Siglecs, Published online: 17 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-018-0247-3

Targeting cancer by Siglecs
Categories: Immunology

Recent progress in broadly neutralizing antibodies to HIV

Nature Immunology - 17 October 2018 - 12:00am

Recent progress in broadly neutralizing antibodies to HIV

Recent progress in broadly neutralizing antibodies to HIV, Published online: 17 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-018-0235-7

Sok and Burton highlight recent developments in the discovery and application of antibodies able to neutralize diverse isolates of HIV, known as ‘broadly neutralizing antibodies’.
Categories: Immunology

Strategies for an HIV cure: progress and challenges

Nature Immunology - 17 October 2018 - 12:00am

Strategies for an HIV cure: progress and challenges

Strategies for an HIV cure: progress and challenges, Published online: 17 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-018-0242-8

The ‘Strategies for an HIV Cure’ conference was held 27–28 April 2018 in Beijing, China, and was hosted by The People's Republic of China Ministry of Science and Technology and the Chinese Academy of Sciences.
Categories: Immunology

Flat-lying antibody prevents disease enhancement

Nature Immunology - 15 October 2018 - 12:00am

Flat-lying antibody prevents disease enhancement

Flat-lying antibody prevents disease enhancement, Published online: 15 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-018-0239-3

An antibody to dengue virus that lies flat on its target, neutralizes the virus and also prevents antibody-dependent enhancement of infection is now identified.
Categories: Immunology

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