Immunology

Co-inhibitory Molecule B7 Superfamily Member 1 Expressed by Tumor-Infiltrating Myeloid Cells Induces Dysfunction of Anti-tumor CD8+ T Cells

Immunity - 3 April 2018 - 12:00am
Mechanisms driving T cell exhaustion have not been understood. Li et al. demonstrate that B7S1 on tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells initiates exhaustion of activated CD8+ TILs through upregulating Eomes, thus proposing B7S1 as a promising target to enhance the efficacy of anti-PD-1 therapy.
Categories: Immunology

KLRG1+ Effector CD8+ T Cells Lose KLRG1, Differentiate into All Memory T Cell Lineages, and Convey Enhanced Protective Immunity

Immunity - 3 April 2018 - 12:00am
Herndler-Brandstetter et al. demonstrate that KLRG1+IL-7Rα+ effector CD8+ T cells downregulate KLRG1 in a Bach2-dependent manner and differentiate into long-lived circulating and tissue-resident “exKLRG1” memory cells. Developmental plasticity of KLRG1+ effector cells therefore drives functional diversity within memory T cell lineages and promotes enhanced anti-influenza and anti-tumor immunity.
Categories: Immunology

Interleukin-15 Complex Treatment Protects Mice from Cerebral Malaria by Inducing Interleukin-10-Producing Natural Killer Cells

Immunity - 3 April 2018 - 12:00am
NK cells can display both pro-inflammatory and regulatory function, but their role in the pathogenesis of malaria is not fully understood. Burrack et al. demonstrate that IL-15 complex (IL-15C) therapy prevents mice from succumbing to experimental cerebral malaria (ECM). IL-15C treatment stimulates NK cells to produce IL-10, suppressing the pathogenic CD8+ T cell response during ECM.
Categories: Immunology

Editorial Board and Contents

Trends Immunology - 1 April 2018 - 12:00am
Categories: Immunology

Dual Transforming Growth Factor-β and Programmed Death-1 Blockade: A Strategy for Immune-Excluded Tumors?

Trends Immunology - 26 March 2018 - 12:00am
Tumors that elude infiltration by CD8+ T lymphocytes are particularly resistant to multiple forms of treatment, including immune checkpoint blockade. Stromal transforming growth factor (TGF)-β appears to play a key role in this process, potentially constituting a target for novel combinatorial regimens tackling immune-excluded neoplasms.
Categories: Immunology

Carmen Gerlach

Trends Immunology - 22 March 2018 - 12:00am
Due to an error in the preparation of this interview, the word ribosome was used mistakenly in the first section, where polymerase should have been employed. This error has been corrected and the relevant section now reads:
Categories: Immunology

The Impact of Sex on Alloimmunity

Trends Immunology - 22 March 2018 - 12:00am
Transplantation outcomes are known to be affected by multiple factors, including donor and recipient sex. Aside from the physiological characteristics of male and female donor allografts, accumulating evidence suggests that additional features underlie sex-specific immune responses that affect graft survival. We discuss here aspects of innate and adaptive alloimmunity that are specific to males and females in the context of underlying genetic and hormonal factors. These differences likely contribute to the observed disparities in graft survival.
Categories: Immunology

IL-33 meets allergens at the gate

Nature Immunology - 21 March 2018 - 12:00am

IL-33 meets allergens at the gate

IL-33 meets allergens at the gate, Published online: 21 March 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-018-0069-3

IL-33 is a mediator of allergic inflammation and is localized in mucosal tissues to respond rapidly to environmental insults. These include allergens themselves, which can directly activate IL-33 through their intrinsic proteolytic activity.
Categories: Immunology

Mast cells in autoimmune disease

Nature Immunology - 21 March 2018 - 12:00am

Mast cells in autoimmune disease

Mast cells in autoimmune disease, Published online: 21 March 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-018-0080-8

Mast cells in autoimmune disease
Categories: Immunology

Targeting TGF-β in cancer

Nature Immunology - 21 March 2018 - 12:00am

Targeting TGF-β in cancer

Targeting TGF-β in cancer, Published online: 21 March 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-018-0076-4

Targeting TGF-β in cancer
Categories: Immunology

IL-17-receptor-associated adaptor Act1 directly stabilizes mRNAs to mediate IL-17 inflammatory signaling

Nature Immunology - 21 March 2018 - 12:00am

IL-17-receptor-associated adaptor Act1 directly stabilizes mRNAs to mediate IL-17 inflammatory signaling

IL-17-receptor-associated adaptor Act1 directly stabilizes mRNAs to mediate IL-17 inflammatory signaling, Published online: 21 March 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-018-0071-9

Act1 is an adaptor protein that associates with the IL-17 receptor at the cell membrane. Li and colleagues show that Act1 also exhibits unexpected RNA-binding activity and directly stabilizes select mRNAs encoding inflammatory cytokines and chemokines.
Categories: Immunology

Asymmetry in PI(3)K activity

Nature Immunology - 21 March 2018 - 12:00am

Asymmetry in PI(3)K activity

Asymmetry in PI(3)K activity, Published online: 21 March 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-018-0079-1

Asymmetry in PI(3)K activity
Categories: Immunology

CD1c caves in on lipids

Nature Immunology - 21 March 2018 - 12:00am

CD1c caves in on lipids

CD1c caves in on lipids, Published online: 21 March 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-018-0074-6

Autoreactive T cells exclusively recognize the roof of the binding groove of the antigen-presenting molecule CD1c after it has caved in on short headless self lipids.
Categories: Immunology

Flowing into higher dimensions

Nature Immunology - 21 March 2018 - 12:00am

Flowing into higher dimensions

Flowing into higher dimensions, Published online: 21 March 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-018-0081-7

Flowing into higher dimensions
Categories: Immunology

Establishing T cell lineage identity

Nature Immunology - 21 March 2018 - 12:00am

Establishing T cell lineage identity

Establishing T cell lineage identity, Published online: 21 March 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-018-0077-3

Establishing T cell lineage identity
Categories: Immunology

Regulation and Function of the PD-L1 Checkpoint

Immunity - 20 March 2018 - 12:00am
Schumacher et al. review the mechanisms that control PD-L1 expression in cancer and discuss how the growing understanding of the regulation and function of the PD-1-PD-L1 axis can guide more precise and effective immune checkpoint therapies.
Categories: Immunology

Sterile Inflammation Fuels Gastric Cancer

Immunity - 20 March 2018 - 12:00am
Constitutively activated NF-κB signaling has long been known to be oncogenic. In this issue of Immunity, O’Reilly et al. (2018) unveil a link between loss of NF-κB1, aberrant STAT1 signaling, sterile inflammation, and the increased expression of immune checkpoint molecules as cancer drivers.
Categories: Immunology

A Developmental Switch in Microglial HDAC Function

Immunity - 20 March 2018 - 12:00am
The epigenetic mechanisms controlling microglia functions are largely unknown. In this issue of Immunity, Datta et al. (2018) uncover surprising and distinct effects of deleting the epigenetic regulators HDAC1 and HDAC2 during microglial development versus during the course of neurodegeneration.
Categories: Immunology

Unconventional T Cell Targets for Cancer Immunotherapy

Immunity - 20 March 2018 - 12:00am
Godfrey et al. review the current understanding of the roles of unconventional T cells in tumor immunity, and discuss the therapeutic potential of harnessing the anti-tumor functions of cells characterized by repeated patterns of TCR usage in unrelated individuals.
Categories: Immunology

Fas Promotes T Helper 17 Cell Differentiation and Inhibits T Helper 1 Cell Development by Binding and Sequestering Transcription Factor STAT1

Immunity - 20 March 2018 - 12:00am
Fas is a well-known death receptor that can also mediate non-apoptotic functions. Meyer zu Horste et al. demonstrate that Fas promotes the stability and pathogenicity of T helper 17 cells by sequestering and inhibiting the activation of STAT1 and regulating the availability of opposing STAT1 and STAT3.
Categories: Immunology

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