Immunology

Mitochondria–ER hubs

Nature Immunology - 18 April 2018 - 12:00am

Mitochondria–ER hubs

Mitochondria–ER hubs, Published online: 18 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-018-0097-z

Mitochondria–ER hubs
Categories: Immunology

Adaptive responses of innate lymphocytes

Nature Immunology - 18 April 2018 - 12:00am

Adaptive responses of innate lymphocytes

Adaptive responses of innate lymphocytes, Published online: 18 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-018-0088-0

The activating natural killer cell receptor NKG2C can specifically recognize peptides derived from the cytomegalovirus protein UL40 in the context of HLA-E. This drives the expansion of a population of adaptive NKG2C+ natural killer cells.
Categories: Immunology

Synthetic benefits

Nature Immunology - 18 April 2018 - 12:00am

Synthetic benefits

Synthetic benefits, Published online: 18 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-018-0100-8

Synthetic benefits
Categories: Immunology

Got my γδ17 T cells to keep me warm

Nature Immunology - 18 April 2018 - 12:00am

Got my γδ17 T cells to keep me warm

Got my γδ17 T cells to keep me warm, Published online: 18 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-018-0090-6

γδ T cells accumulate with age in adipose tissue and produce the cytokine IL-17, which controls the homeostasis of regulatory T cells and adaptive thermogenesis. Thus, maintenance of core body temperature unexpectedly relies on these adipose tissue–resident γδ17 T cells.
Categories: Immunology

Traumatic meningeal injury and repair mechanisms

Nature Immunology - 18 April 2018 - 12:00am

Traumatic meningeal injury and repair mechanisms

Traumatic meningeal injury and repair mechanisms, Published online: 18 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-018-0093-3

Myeloid cells exhibit different inflammatory phenotypes after brain injury, yet the relative mechanistic roles for these diverse cell types in post-traumatic tissue damage and repair remain controversial.
Categories: Immunology

PP2A in B cells

Nature Immunology - 18 April 2018 - 12:00am

PP2A in B cells

PP2A in B cells, Published online: 18 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-018-0098-y

PP2A in B cells
Categories: Immunology

Crisis management

Nature Immunology - 18 April 2018 - 12:00am

Crisis management

Crisis management, Published online: 18 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-018-0101-7

Crisis management
Categories: Immunology

B cells on the brain

Nature Immunology - 18 April 2018 - 12:00am

B cells on the brain

B cells on the brain, Published online: 18 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-018-0096-0

B cells on the brain
Categories: Immunology

A Hen in the Wolf Den: A Pathobiont Tale

Immunity - 17 April 2018 - 12:00am
Disruption of the gut microbiota is thought to contribute to disease onset in individuals with a genetic predisposition to autoimmunity. In a recent issue of Science, Manfredo Vieira et al. (2018) identify translocation of the gut commensal Enterococcus gallinarum into the liver as a trigger for the autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematous.
Categories: Immunology

NLRP6 and Dysbiosis: Avoiding the Luring Attraction of Over-Simplification

Immunity - 17 April 2018 - 12:00am
Identification of the individual factors contributing to the formation of “healthy” or disease-modulating “dysbiotic” microbiome communities is an important aspect of microbiome research. In light of the high individuality of human and animal microbiomes across geography and time, the reproducibility of findings between different labs is increasingly recognized as a challenge to this exponentially expanding field.
Categories: Immunology

Defining the Impact of Host Genotypes on Microbiota Composition Requires Meticulous Control of Experimental Variables

Immunity - 17 April 2018 - 12:00am
Commensal microbial communities play critical roles in shaping human health. A substantial body of scientific and clinical evidence links microbial dysbiosis to inflammatory bowel diseases, metabolic disease, and numerous other diseases that affect humanity. One of the challenges ahead in realizing the full biomedical potential of microbiome modulation lies in defining the host and environmental factors and mechanisms that modulate the microbiota composition. There is no doubt that microbiota regulation is complex and multi-factorial, with effects from diverse cues including lifestyle, infections, diet, metabolism, and host genetics.
Categories: Immunology

TGF-β Inhibition and Immunotherapy: Checkmate

Immunity - 17 April 2018 - 12:00am
Immune checkpoint therapy can induce durable remissions, but many tumors demonstrate resistance. In a recent issue of Nature, Mariathasan et al. (2018) and Tauriello et al. (2018) identify stromal TGF-β signaling as a determinant of immune exclusion. Combination TGF-β inhibition and immunotherapy induces complete responses in mouse models.
Categories: Immunology

Inhibiting EBV: The Key to Carefree Smooching

Immunity - 17 April 2018 - 12:00am
There are no vaccines or therapies to treat Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Snijder et al. (2018) isolated a potent human antibody against EBV that blocks infection of both B cells and epithelial cells. Structural analysis of the antibody complexed with a viral surface protein complex identified a site that may be useful in vaccine development.
Categories: Immunology

Peroxisome-Mediated Metabolism Is Required for Immune Response to Microbial Infection

Immunity - 17 April 2018 - 12:00am
(Immunity 47, 93-106, July 18, 2017)
Categories: Immunology

Regulatory T Cell Migration Is Dependent on Glucokinase-Mediated Glycolysis

Immunity - 17 April 2018 - 12:00am
(Immunity 47, 875–889, November 21, 2017)
Categories: Immunology

Bach2: An Instrument of Heterogeneity for Long-Term Protection

Immunity - 17 April 2018 - 12:00am
Generation of functionally diverse effector and memory killer T cells is essential for immediate and long-term protective immunity. Herndler-Brandstetter et al. (2018) report that Bach2 promotes functional plasticity of effector T cells and the transition into the long-term memory compartment by regulating the expression of the inhibitory receptor KLRG1.
Categories: Immunology

GoldiRunx and Remembering Cytotoxic Memory

Immunity - 17 April 2018 - 12:00am
The molecular basis for T cell memory differentiation remains elusive. Wang et al. (2018) identify Runx3 as an initiating transcription factor that specifies regulatory regions required for cytotoxic T cell (CTL) memory differentiation early after TCR signaling and constrains the ability of T-bet to drive terminal effector generation.
Categories: Immunology

Innate Immune Cells Speak Manganese

Immunity - 17 April 2018 - 12:00am
Some metal ions, such as Ca2+ and Zn2+, are involved in intracellular communication in immune cells by acting as second messengers. In this issue of Immunity, Wang et al. (2018) present findings implying a similar role for an additional metal ion, by showing that manganese participates in the recognition of cytoplasmic DNA.
Categories: Immunology

Better Together: B7S1 Checkpoint Blockade Synergizes with anti-PD1

Immunity - 17 April 2018 - 12:00am
T cell checkpoint blockades can produce durable clinical responses, but only some patients and cancer types respond. In this issue of Immunity, Li et al. (2018) show B7S1-B7S1R signaling additionally regulates CD8+ T cell responses by working with the PD1-PDL1 checkpoint to block anti-tumor immunity.
Categories: Immunology

The Transcription Factor Runx3 Establishes Chromatin Accessibility of cis-Regulatory Landscapes that Drive Memory Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Formation

Immunity - 17 April 2018 - 12:00am
Chromatin accessibility in naive CD8+ T cells is globally reprogrammed during infection. Wang et al. show that the transcription factor Runx3 programs chromatin accessibility during stimulation of naive CD8+ T cells, which establishes early transcriptional circuits that drive differentiation of nascent cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), and also represses terminal differentiation to ensure that they develop into long-lived memory CTLs.
Categories: Immunology

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