Immunology

Innate Antiviral Immunity in the Skin

Trends Immunology - 8 March 2018 - 12:00am
Barrier sites such as the skin play a critical role in immune defense. They must maintain homeostasis with commensals and rapidly detect and limit pathogen invasion. This is accomplished in part through the production of endogenous antimicrobial peptides and proteins, which can be either constitutive or inducible. Here, we focus particularly on the control of innate antiviral proteins and present the basic aspects of their regulation in the skin by interferons (IFNs), IFN-independent immunity, and environmental factors.
Categories: Immunology

Human IFIT3 Modulates IFIT1 RNA Binding Specificity and Protein Stability

Immunity - 7 March 2018 - 12:00am
Prior studies have suggested that human IFIT1, unlike its mouse ortholog, might not recognize viral RNA molecules lacking 2′-O methylation on their cap structures. Johnson et al. report a crystal structure between cap 0 (m7GpppN) RNA bound to human IFIT1 in complex with the C-terminal domain (CTD) of human IFIT3. The CTD of IFIT3 bound to IFIT1 and allosterically regulated the IFIT1 RNA-binding channel and promoted selective recognition of cap 0 RNA. Functional studies demonstrated that IFIT3 interaction with IFIT1 was important for stabilizing IFIT1 expression and was required for restricting infection of viruses lacking 2′-O methylation in their RNA cap structures
Categories: Immunology

To Each his Own

Trends Immunology - 6 March 2018 - 12:00am
The now classical experiments reported by Medawar in the middle of the last century established the concept of an immune privilege for some sites: a transplant in the brain or eye of an autologous recipient could survive rejection, while the same tissue transplanted subcutaneously was swiftly rejected. These results suggested that the brain and the eye were somehow exempt from surveillance by immune cells. More broadly, these experiments hinted at the fact that, despite the existence of a circulating and supposedly autonomous immune system, local conditions mattered.
Categories: Immunology

Mitochondria-Endoplasmic Reticulum Contact Sites Function as Immunometabolic Hubs that Orchestrate the Rapid Recall Response of Memory CD8+ T Cells

Immunity - 6 March 2018 - 12:00am
How glucose metabolism enables rapid acquisition of effector function in memory CD8+ T cells remains poorly understood. Bantug et al. demonstrate that mitochondria-endoplasmic reticulum contact sites are signaling hubs that enable the metabolic reprogramming required for rapid CD8+ T cell recall responses.
Categories: Immunology

Innate immune responses to trauma

Nature Immunology - 5 March 2018 - 12:00am

Innate immune responses to trauma

Innate immune responses to trauma, Published online: 05 March 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-018-0064-8

Innate immune responses to trauma
Categories: Immunology

Salivary factor LTRIN from <i>Aedes aegypti</i> facilitates the transmission of Zika virus by interfering with the lymphotoxin-β receptor

Nature Immunology - 5 March 2018 - 12:00am

Salivary factor LTRIN from Aedes aegypti facilitates the transmission of Zika virus by interfering with the lymphotoxin-β receptor

Salivary factor LTRIN from <i>Aedes aegypti</i> facilitates the transmission of Zika virus by interfering with the lymphotoxin-β receptor, Published online: 05 March 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-018-0063-9

Mosquito salivary-gland extract can modulate the host immune response. Qi and colleagues show that the salivary factor LTRIN from Aedes aegypti facilitates the transmission of Zika virus by interfering with the lymphotoxin-β receptor.
Categories: Immunology

What Can Immunologists Learn from Systems Approaches?

Trends Immunology - 1 March 2018 - 12:00am
The field of systems immunology has grown extensively over the past few years, spurred by the generation of large data sets, and new analytical tools and modeling approaches. In this piece and its counterpart in Cell Systems (​http://www.cell.com/cell-systems/home), eight authors discuss what immunologists can learn from systems biology and, conversely, how systems biologists can use immune cells as a model, and outline the many directions in which this interdisciplinary field can expand.
Categories: Immunology

Editorial Board and Contents

Trends Immunology - 1 March 2018 - 12:00am
Categories: Immunology

Immunomodulation as Rescue for Chronic Atonic Skin Wounds

Trends Immunology - 27 February 2018 - 12:00am
Chronic skin wounds, caused by arterial or venous insufficiency or by physical pressure, constitute an increasing medical problem as populations age. Whereas typical wounds are characterized by local inflammation that participates in the healing process, atonic wounds lack inflammatory markers, such as neutrophil infiltration, and generally do not heal. Recently, prominent roles in the immunopathology of chronic wounds were attributed to dysregulations in specific cytokines, chemokines, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and their substrates.
Categories: Immunology

Revisiting the Functional Impact of NK Cells

Trends Immunology - 26 February 2018 - 12:00am
Immune responses are critical for the maintenance of homeostasis but can also upset the equilibrium, depending on the context and magnitude of the response. Natural killer (NK) cells are well known for their important roles in antiviral and antitumor immune responses, and they are currently used, mostly under optimized forms, as immunotherapeutic agents against cancer. Nevertheless, with accumulating examples of deleterious effects of NK cells, it is paramount to consider their negative contributions.
Categories: Immunology

Regulation of age-associated B cells by IRF5 in systemic autoimmunity

Nature Immunology - 26 February 2018 - 12:00am

Regulation of age-associated B cells by IRF5 in systemic autoimmunity

Regulation of age-associated B cells by IRF5 in systemic autoimmunity, Published online: 26 February 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-018-0056-8

A unique subset of T-bet-expressing B cells accumulates with aging and in autoimmunity. Pernis and colleagues show that dysregulation of the transcription factor IRF5 occurs after loss of the Rho GTPase–regulatory proteins DEF6 and SWAP-70 and leads to the premature generation of age-associated B cells.
Categories: Immunology

B-1a cell metabolism

Nature Immunology - 23 February 2018 - 12:00am

B-1a cell metabolism

B-1a cell metabolism, Published online: 23 February 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-018-0060-z

B-1a cell metabolism
Categories: Immunology

HLA influence on HIV control

Nature Immunology - 23 February 2018 - 12:00am

HLA influence on HIV control

HLA influence on HIV control, Published online: 23 February 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-018-0057-7

HLA influence on HIV control
Categories: Immunology

Capturing resting T cells: the perils of PLL

Nature Immunology - 23 February 2018 - 12:00am

Capturing resting T cells: the perils of PLL

Capturing resting T cells: the perils of PLL, Published online: 23 February 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-018-0048-8

Capturing resting T cells: the perils of PLL
Categories: Immunology

Tumor architecture

Nature Immunology - 23 February 2018 - 12:00am

Tumor architecture

Tumor architecture, Published online: 23 February 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-018-0061-y

Tumor architecture
Categories: Immunology

Mitochondrial DNA webs

Nature Immunology - 23 February 2018 - 12:00am

Mitochondrial DNA webs

Mitochondrial DNA webs, Published online: 23 February 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-018-0058-6

Mitochondrial DNA webs
Categories: Immunology

Toll-like receptor 9 antagonizes antibody affinity maturation

Nature Immunology - 23 February 2018 - 12:00am

Toll-like receptor 9 antagonizes antibody affinity maturation

Toll-like receptor 9 antagonizes antibody affinity maturation, Published online: 23 February 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-018-0052-z

The presentation of antigen by germinal-center B cells to follicular T cells engenders the process of antibody affinity maturation and humoral memory. Pierce and colleagues show that TLR9 signaling in B cells antagonizes B cell–mediated antigen presentation, which leads to the enhanced generation of short-lived plasma cells and the production of lower-affinity antibodies.
Categories: Immunology

Natural variation in the parameters of innate immune cells is preferentially driven by genetic factors

Nature Immunology - 23 February 2018 - 12:00am

Natural variation in the parameters of innate immune cells is preferentially driven by genetic factors

Natural variation in the parameters of innate immune cells is preferentially driven by genetic factors, Published online: 23 February 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-018-0049-7

Both environmental factors and genetic factors influence human immunity. Albert and colleagues leverage data from the Milieu Intérieur Consortium to comprehensively describe the effects of lifestyle, environment and genetics on human innate and adaptive immunity.
Categories: Immunology

Cancer cells deliver a suppressive cargo

Nature Immunology - 23 February 2018 - 12:00am

Cancer cells deliver a suppressive cargo

Cancer cells deliver a suppressive cargo, Published online: 23 February 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-018-0050-1

Tumor cells downregulate type I interferon responses through their delivery of immunomodulatory exosomes, which has implications for antiviral suppression in people with cancer.
Categories: Immunology

Natural Killer Cells Detect a Tumor-Produced Growth Factor: A Vestige of Antiviral Resistance?

Trends Immunology - 22 February 2018 - 12:00am
In addition to exogenous ligands derived from pathogens, natural killer (NK) and other innate cells can recognize endogenous ligands that often act as markers of stress or damage. A recent study reports that one of these receptors, human NKp44, recognizes PDGF-DD, providing a rare example of the recognition of a soluble growth factor as a stress signal. The recognition of PDGF-DD induces the secretion of cytokines with antitumor activity.
Categories: Immunology

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