Immunology

T cell cytolytic capacity is independent of initial stimulation strength

Nature Immunology - 16 July 2018 - 12:00am

T cell cytolytic capacity is independent of initial stimulation strength

T cell cytolytic capacity is independent of initial stimulation strength, Published online: 16 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-018-0160-9

Lymphocytes interpret antigenic signals into a functional response. Richard et al. demonstrate that the overall qualitative response by CTLs is independent of TCR ligand strength; instead, ligands determine the rate and uniformity at which CTLs respond.
Categories: Immunology

Epithelial damage and tissue γδ T cells promote a unique tumor-protective IgE response

Nature Immunology - 16 July 2018 - 12:00am

Epithelial damage and tissue γδ T cells promote a unique tumor-protective IgE response

Epithelial damage and tissue γδ T cells promote a unique tumor-protective IgE response, Published online: 16 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-018-0161-8

Evidence of protective and homeostatic roles for IgE is relatively limited. Strid and colleagues demonstrate that γδ T cells induce switching to IgE that provides protection against experimentally induced epithelial cancer.
Categories: Immunology

CD8<sup>+</sup> T cells have commitment issues

Nature Immunology - 16 July 2018 - 12:00am

CD8+ T cells have commitment issues

CD8<sup>+</sup> T cells have commitment issues, Published online: 16 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-018-0169-0

T cell activation is ‘digital’: exhaustive single-cell analysis shows that only the proportion of cells that cross the activation threshold is reduced when the affinity of the TCR for its ligand is reduced.
Categories: Immunology

Adjustment of dendritic cells to the breast-cancer microenvironment is subset specific

Nature Immunology - 16 July 2018 - 12:00am

Adjustment of dendritic cells to the breast-cancer microenvironment is subset specific

Adjustment of dendritic cells to the breast-cancer microenvironment is subset specific, Published online: 16 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-018-0145-8

Soumelis and colleagues use RNA-based sequencing to define the transcriptional signatures of DC subsets and monocytes-macrophages in human primary breast cancer.
Categories: Immunology

γδ T cells and IgE team up to prevent tumors

Nature Immunology - 16 July 2018 - 12:00am

γδ T cells and IgE team up to prevent tumors

γδ T cells and IgE team up to prevent tumors, Published online: 16 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-018-0167-2

In response to epithelial DNA damage, tissue-resident γδ T cells initiate and shape a tumor-protective IgE response that requires CD4+ T cells and immune effector cells expressing the high-affinity IgE receptor FcεRI.
Categories: Immunology

TCRs are randomly distributed on the plasma membrane of resting antigen-experienced T cells

Nature Immunology - 16 July 2018 - 12:00am

TCRs are randomly distributed on the plasma membrane of resting antigen-experienced T cells

TCRs are randomly distributed on the plasma membrane of resting antigen-experienced T cells, Published online: 16 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-018-0162-7

TCRs are often thought to be pre-clustered before T cell activation. Rossboth et al. use super-resolution microscopy and statistical image analysis to demonstrate that TCRs are in fact randomly distributed on resting T cells.
Categories: Immunology

An RNA checkpoint that keeps immunological memory at bay

Nature Immunology - 9 July 2018 - 12:00am

An RNA checkpoint that keeps immunological memory at bay

An RNA checkpoint that keeps immunological memory at bay, Published online: 09 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-018-0168-1

What keeps memory T cells functionally silent in the absence of infection is unclear. New data reveal the existence of a deterministic halt in the protein-synthesis machinery of memory T cells and expose the discriminatory functions of a family of RNA-binding proteins.
Categories: Immunology

Second signals rescue B cells from activation-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and death

Nature Immunology - 9 July 2018 - 12:00am

Second signals rescue B cells from activation-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and death

Second signals rescue B cells from activation-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and death, Published online: 09 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-018-0156-5

B cells need at least two signals to terminally differentiate into antibody-secreting cells. Pierce and colleagues show that persistent exposure to antigen in the absence of T cell help or ‘pathogen pattern motifs’ leads to B cell death via a calcium-dependent ‘metabolic timer’.
Categories: Immunology

B cells race the clock to get a second wind

Nature Immunology - 9 July 2018 - 12:00am

B cells race the clock to get a second wind

B cells race the clock to get a second wind, Published online: 09 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-018-0166-3

Co-stimulatory second signals delivered through TLRs or CD40 rescue antigen-stimulated B cells from metabolic dysfunction and apoptosis. This identifies a critical time-limited window during which B cells integrate sequential signals to successfully initiate humoral immunity.
Categories: Immunology

Maintenance of CD4 T cell fitness through regulation of Foxo1

Nature Immunology - 9 July 2018 - 12:00am

Maintenance of CD4 T cell fitness through regulation of Foxo1

Maintenance of CD4 T cell fitness through regulation of Foxo1, Published online: 09 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-018-0157-4

Foxo proteins are required for maintaining T cell quiescence. Turka and colleagues use a constitutively active Foxo1 in Treg cells to show that its downregulation is essential for maintaining their fitness in a competitive environment.
Categories: Immunology

Translational repression of pre-formed cytokine-encoding mRNA prevents chronic activation of memory T cells

Nature Immunology - 9 July 2018 - 12:00am

Translational repression of pre-formed cytokine-encoding mRNA prevents chronic activation of memory T cells

Translational repression of pre-formed cytokine-encoding mRNA prevents chronic activation of memory T cells, Published online: 09 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-018-0155-6

Wolkers and colleagues show that the RNA-binding protein ZFP36L2 represses the translation of pre-formed cytokine-encoding mRNAs in memory T cells.
Categories: Immunology

The transcription factor Rfx7 limits metabolism of NK cells and promotes their maintenance and immunity

Nature Immunology - 2 July 2018 - 12:00am

The transcription factor Rfx7 limits metabolism of NK cells and promotes their maintenance and immunity

The transcription factor Rfx7 limits metabolism of NK cells and promotes their maintenance and immunity, Published online: 02 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-018-0144-9

Regulatory factor X (RFX) is a transcription factor family comprising seven known members, yet the functional roles of RFX7 remain unknown. Guarda and colleagues show that RFX7 regulates natural killer (NK) cell survival and activity by limiting their cellular metabolism.
Categories: Immunology

Author Correction: T-bet-dependent NKp46<sup>+</sup> innate lymphoid cells regulate the onset of T<sub>H</sub>17-induced neuroinflammation

Nature Immunology - 29 June 2018 - 12:00am

Author Correction: T-bet-dependent NKp46+ innate lymphoid cells regulate the onset of TH17-induced neuroinflammation

Author Correction: T-bet-dependent NKp46<sup>+</sup> innate lymphoid cells regulate the onset of T<sub>H</sub>17-induced neuroinflammation, Published online: 29 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-018-0139-6

Author Correction: T-bet-dependent NKp46+ innate lymphoid cells regulate the onset of TH17-induced neuroinflammation
Categories: Immunology

Publisher Correction: Macrophages: damage control

Nature Immunology - 28 June 2018 - 12:00am

Publisher Correction: Macrophages: damage control

Publisher Correction: Macrophages: damage control, Published online: 28 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-018-0159-2

Publisher Correction: Macrophages: damage control
Categories: Immunology

Publisher Correction: Feeling stressed? It might be your T cells

Nature Immunology - 28 June 2018 - 12:00am

Publisher Correction: Feeling stressed? It might be your T cells

Publisher Correction: Feeling stressed? It might be your T cells, Published online: 28 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-018-0140-0

Publisher Correction: Feeling stressed? It might be your T cells
Categories: Immunology

Author Correction: A gammaherpesvirus provides protection against allergic asthma by inducing the replacement of resident alveolar macrophages with regulatory monocytes

Nature Immunology - 28 June 2018 - 12:00am

Author Correction: A gammaherpesvirus provides protection against allergic asthma by inducing the replacement of resident alveolar macrophages with regulatory monocytes

Author Correction: A gammaherpesvirus provides protection against allergic asthma by inducing the replacement of resident alveolar macrophages with regulatory monocytes, Published online: 28 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-017-0024-8

Author Correction: A gammaherpesvirus provides protection against allergic asthma by inducing the replacement of resident alveolar macrophages with regulatory monocytes
Categories: Immunology

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