Immunology

Skin Commensal Antigens: Taking the Road Less Traveled

Trends Immunology - 22 February 2018 - 12:00am
Although our knowledge of host–commensal interactions has increased exponentially, the mechanisms linking a specific commensal, its detection by the immune system, and its impact on tissue function are still often poorly understood. In a recent study in Cell, Linehan et al. dissect one of these interactions in the context of the skin, and demonstrate that Staphylococcus epidermidis antigens, presented through a non-classical pathway, drive the accumulation of CD8+ T cells that promote wound healing.
Categories: Immunology

Lipid Droplets as Immune Modulators in Myeloid Cells

Trends Immunology - 22 February 2018 - 12:00am
Lipid droplets (LDs) were initially described as fat storage organelles in adipocytes, but are increasingly recognized as dynamic players in lipid metabolism, with important roles not only in diseases such as diabetes and cancer, but also in immune regulation. Alterations in immune cell function, such as myeloid cell activation, are connected to profound changes in LD numbers and LD protein composition. Thus, these organelles appear to be essential to metabolically support immune responses, and have a vital role in antigen crosspresentation, interferon (IFN) responses, production of inflammatory mediators, and pathogen clearance.
Categories: Immunology

Recent Advances in Type-2-Cell-Mediated Immunity: Insights from Helminth Infection

Immunity - 20 February 2018 - 12:00am
(Immunity 47, 1024–1036, December 19, 2017)
Categories: Immunology

Understanding Subset Diversity in T Cell Memory

Immunity - 20 February 2018 - 12:00am
Memory T cells are typically parsed into discreet subsets based on phenotypic definitions that connote distinct roles in immunity. Jameson and Masopust argue that the conventional subset nomenclature fails to accurately encompass the distribution of functional traits within this diverse population.
Categories: Immunology

Microglia: You’ll Never Walk Alone!

Immunity - 20 February 2018 - 12:00am
In this issue of Immunity, Mrdjen et al. (2018) use high-dimensional single-cell proteomics and high parametric mass cytometry to provide insight into the long-lasting issue of how to identify and characterize both resident and recruited leukocyte populations in healthy, aged, and diseased CNS.
Categories: Immunology

NKTeeing Up B Cell Responses to Viral Infection

Immunity - 20 February 2018 - 12:00am
Activated B cells mature in germinal centers (GCs), but GC initiation during infection is poorly understood. Gaya et al. (2018) show that NKT cells, activated by CD169+ macrophages, produce an early wave of interleukin-4 (IL-4) that promotes GC formation during viral infection.
Categories: Immunology

Have Cytokines, Will Travel

Immunity - 20 February 2018 - 12:00am
In many contexts, innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are primarily tissue resident. By contrast, in a recent issue of Science, Huang et al. (2018) show that inflammatory type 2 ILCs migrate from the intestines to the lungs and that this movement is guided by sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors.
Categories: Immunology

Stem Cells Cycle toward Immune Surveillance

Immunity - 20 February 2018 - 12:00am
Immune surveillance is an established regulatory mechanism that spares tissues from malignant transformation. Agudo et al. (2018) find that the chief cell type to generate tissues in the body—somatic stem cells—is subject to immune surveillance only during proliferation.
Categories: Immunology

Infants Harness the Germline against RSV

Immunity - 20 February 2018 - 12:00am
In this issue of Immunity, Goodwin et al. (2018) offer hope for an RSV vaccine for young infants by demonstrating that RSV infection in very young infants induces neutralizing antibodies that are close to the germline and have unusual epitope specificity.
Categories: Immunology

T Cell LEGO: Identifying the Master Builders and What They Do

Immunity - 20 February 2018 - 12:00am
Understanding how cell fate decisions are made during cellular differentiation and the mechanisms that drive them is a holy grail of cell biology. In this issue of Immunity, Hu et al. (2018) and Johnson et al. (2018) demonstrate that key transcriptional regulators and global changes in nuclear architecture underlie differentiation decisions during T cell development.
Categories: Immunology

A New Link between γδ T Cells and Myeloid Cells in Malaria?

Immunity - 20 February 2018 - 12:00am
In malaria, the immune responses leading to protective immunity versus immunopathology are unclear. Mamedov et al. (2018) identify a subset of clonally expanded γδ T cells in late-stage infection that produce M-CSF and may interact with myeloid cells to control recrudescent infection.
Categories: Immunology

Developmental Analysis of Bone Marrow Neutrophils Reveals Populations Specialized in Expansion, Trafficking, and Effector Functions

Immunity - 20 February 2018 - 12:00am
The neutrophil differentiation pathway is poorly defined. Evrard et. al. demonstrate a workflow of characterizing bone marrow neutrophil subsets on the basis of their proliferative capacity and molecular signatures and thereby define the developmental trajectory and functional properties of neutrophils.
Categories: Immunology

Quiescent Tissue Stem Cells Evade Immune Surveillance

Immunity - 20 February 2018 - 12:00am
Agudo et al. find that cycling tissue stem cells are subject to immune clearance, but quiescent stem cells downregulate the antigen presentation machinery and evade immune surveillance.
Categories: Immunology

T Cells in Nonlymphoid Tissues Give Rise to Lymph-Node-Resident Memory T Cells

Immunity - 20 February 2018 - 12:00am
Resident memory T (Trm) cells park within tissues without recirculating. Beura et al. demonstrate that Trm cells in lymph nodes derive from cells that emigrate from nonlymphoid tissues. Local booster immunization or reinfection at barrier tissues generated secondary lymph node memory T cells that were biased specifically toward draining lymph nodes where they were resident.
Categories: Immunology

Transformation of Accessible Chromatin and 3D Nucleome Underlies Lineage Commitment of Early T Cells

Immunity - 20 February 2018 - 12:00am
Cellular differentiation and cell-fate choice involve substantial chromatin reorganization. Through an integrative analysis of the regulome, 3D nucleome, and transcriptome, Hu and Cui et al. uncover abrupt global changes in the regulome and 3D nucleome at the DN2-to-DN3 transition, establishing a chromatin barrier to lock cell fate into the T lineages.
Categories: Immunology

Lineage-Determining Transcription Factor TCF-1 Initiates the Epigenetic Identity of T Cells

Immunity - 20 February 2018 - 12:00am
It is known that TCF-1 is required for T cell development, but the mechanism by which it controls the T cell lineage remains unclear. Johnson et al. reveal that TCF-1 controls T cell fate through its ability to create de novo open chromatin, establishing the epigenetic identity of T cells.
Categories: Immunology

Human T Cell Development, Localization, and Function throughout Life

Immunity - 20 February 2018 - 12:00am
Recent studies of human T cells in diverse tissue sites have revealed that the functional role of T cells is closely linked to the anatomical location, subset, and developmental stage. Kumar et al. review these advances and highlight human-specific aspects of T cell immunity.
Categories: Immunology

Publisher Correction: The transcriptional coactivator TAZ regulates reciprocal differentiation of T<sub>H</sub>17 cells and T<sub>reg</sub> cells

Nature Immunology - 14 February 2018 - 12:00am

Publisher Correction: The transcriptional coactivator TAZ regulates reciprocal differentiation of TH17 cells and Treg cells

Publisher Correction: The transcriptional coactivator TAZ regulates reciprocal differentiation of T<sub>H</sub>17 cells and T<sub>reg</sub> cells, Published online: 14 February 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-018-0055-9

Publisher Correction: The transcriptional coactivator TAZ regulates reciprocal differentiation of TH17 cells and Treg cells
Categories: Immunology

Publisher Correction: Human γδ T cells are quickly reconstituted after stem-cell transplantation and show adaptive clonal expansion in response to viral infection

Nature Immunology - 14 February 2018 - 12:00am

Publisher Correction: Human γδ T cells are quickly reconstituted after stem-cell transplantation and show adaptive clonal expansion in response to viral infection

Publisher Correction: Human γδ T cells are quickly reconstituted after stem-cell transplantation and show adaptive clonal expansion in response to viral infection, Published online: 14 February 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-018-0054-x

Publisher Correction: Human γδ T cells are quickly reconstituted after stem-cell transplantation and show adaptive clonal expansion in response to viral infection
Categories: Immunology

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