Immunology

The RNA-binding protein PTBP1 is necessary for B cell selection in germinal centers

Nature Immunology - 22 January 2018 - 12:00am

The RNA-binding protein PTBP1 is necessary for B cell selection in germinal centers

The RNA-binding protein PTBP1 is necessary for B cell selection in germinal centers, Published online: 22 January 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-017-0035-5

Affinity maturation and positive selection occur in germinal centers. Turner and colleagues demonstrate that the RNA-binding protein PTBP1 serves an essential B cell–intrinsic role by regulating the abundance and alternate splicing of transcripts in germinal center B cells.
Categories: Immunology

Selective autophagy of the adaptor TRIF regulates innate inflammatory signaling

Nature Immunology - 22 January 2018 - 12:00am

Selective autophagy of the adaptor TRIF regulates innate inflammatory signaling

Selective autophagy of the adaptor TRIF regulates innate inflammatory signaling, Published online: 22 January 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-017-0042-6

Polymorphisms in the autophagy protein Atg16l are associated with human inflammatory bowel disease. Murthy and colleagues demonstrate that atg16l is crucial to autophagocytic degradation of the innate adapter TRIF and thereby restrains pathological over-production of type I interferons.
Categories: Immunology

Tumor-derived exosomes antagonize innate antiviral immunity

Nature Immunology - 22 January 2018 - 12:00am

Tumor-derived exosomes antagonize innate antiviral immunity

Tumor-derived exosomes antagonize innate antiviral immunity, Published online: 22 January 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-017-0043-5

Cancer can be associated with alterations in innate immunity. Gao et al. demonstrate that these alterations arise from immunomodulatory exosomes released by tumors, which then dampen the production of type I interferons by macrophages.
Categories: Immunology

HIV Reactivation after Partial Protection by Neutralizing Antibodies

Trends Immunology - 20 January 2018 - 12:00am
It is widely thought that generating broadly neutralizing anti-HIV antibodies (BnAbs) will protect humans against HIV, given promising data from in vitro experiments and in vivo macaque studies. The primary action of BnAbs is preventing cell-free virus from entering cells. Recent in vitro and macaque data suggest that BnAbs are less potent against cell-associated virus exposure. We speculate that BnAb-based suppression of HIV transmission, particularly if mediated by cell–cell transmission, may result in some exposed subjects carrying a form of latent (or ‘occult’) HIV infection.
Categories: Immunology

Stressed-out ROS take a silent death route

Nature Immunology - 18 January 2018 - 12:00am

Stressed-out ROS take a silent death route

Stressed-out ROS take a silent death route, Published online: 18 January 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-017-0034-6

Detrimental levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species engage a caspase-independent and non-inflammatory cell death called ‘oxeiptosis’ that serves as an important mechanism in diminishing inflammation.
Categories: Immunology

Antibiotics–immune system interactions

Nature Immunology - 18 January 2018 - 12:00am

Antibiotics–immune system interactions

Antibiotics–immune system interactions, Published online: 18 January 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-017-0041-7

Antibiotics–immune system interactions
Categories: Immunology

Myocardial infarct inflammation

Nature Immunology - 18 January 2018 - 12:00am

Myocardial infarct inflammation

Myocardial infarct inflammation, Published online: 18 January 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-017-0037-3

Myocardial infarct inflammation
Categories: Immunology

RNA-binding proteins control gene expression and cell fate in the immune system

Nature Immunology - 18 January 2018 - 12:00am

RNA-binding proteins control gene expression and cell fate in the immune system

RNA-binding proteins control gene expression and cell fate in the immune system, Published online: 18 January 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-017-0028-4

Turner and Díaz-Muñoz discuss the molecular mechanisms by which RNA-binding proteins modulate the diversity of the transcriptome and proteome in immune cells.
Categories: Immunology

Myeloid-derived suppressor cells coming of age

Nature Immunology - 18 January 2018 - 12:00am

Myeloid-derived suppressor cells coming of age

Myeloid-derived suppressor cells coming of age, Published online: 18 January 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-017-0022-x

Gabrilovich and colleagues review the origin and nature of myeloid-derived suppressor cells, as well as their distinctive features and biological roles in cancer, infectious diseases, autoimmunity, obesity and pregnancy.
Categories: Immunology

Stress-induced depression

Nature Immunology - 18 January 2018 - 12:00am

Stress-induced depression

Stress-induced depression, Published online: 18 January 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-017-0038-2

Stress-induced depression
Categories: Immunology

ERAdP standing in the shadow of STING innate immune signaling

Nature Immunology - 18 January 2018 - 12:00am

ERAdP standing in the shadow of STING innate immune signaling

ERAdP standing in the shadow of STING innate immune signaling, Published online: 18 January 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-017-0026-6

ERAdP, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident protein with similar mechanistic features as the innate immune adaptor STING, controls inflammatory cytokine release, but not that of type I interferon, in response to bacterial cyclic di-AMP.
Categories: Immunology

mTECs Aire on the side of caution

Nature Immunology - 18 January 2018 - 12:00am

mTECs Aire on the side of caution

mTECs Aire on the side of caution, Published online: 18 January 2018; doi:10.1038/s41590-017-0033-7

The transcription factor Aire restrains the transcriptional duration and amplitude of tissue-specific self-antigens by opposing the activity of the chromatin remodeler Brg1—a process required for immune tolerance.
Categories: Immunology

Gasdermin D Flashes an Exit Signal for IL-1

Immunity - 16 January 2018 - 12:00am
The IL-1 family of cytokines follows an unconventional pathway of secretion mostly associated with inflammatory cell death. In this issue of Immunity, (Evavold et al., 2017) report gasdermin D pores as channels for active IL-1 release in live phagocytic cells.
Categories: Immunology

HIV Immunogens: Affinity Is Key

Immunity - 16 January 2018 - 12:00am
Generation of broadly neutralizing antibodies is a key aim of HIV vaccine design, but the precursor B cells are rare. Abbott et al. (2018) report that high affinity and avidity immunogens are required to promote maturation of low frequency B cells in germinal centers.
Categories: Immunology

New Job for NK Cells: Architects of the Tumor Microenvironment

Immunity - 16 January 2018 - 12:00am
NK cells control tumor growth directly through targeted cytotoxic granule release or cytokine secretion and indirectly by orchestrating anti-tumor immune responses. In this issue of Immunity, Glasner et al. (2018) now reveal a new role for NK cells in preventing metastatic spread through controlling tumor architecture.
Categories: Immunology

moDCs, Less Problems

Immunity - 16 January 2018 - 12:00am
Type 1 conventional dendritic cells are necessary for the development of anti-tumor immunity. In this issue of Immunity, Sharma et al. (2018) identify a phenotypically similar monocyte-derived population within inflamed tumors that promotes T cell responses during therapy.
Categories: Immunology

The Family of LPS Signal Transducers Increases: the Arrival of Chanzymes

Immunity - 16 January 2018 - 12:00am
After LPS recognition, the MyD88-dependent and the TRIF-dependent pathways are consecutively activated in macrophages. Schappe et al. (2018) show that the chanzyme TRPM7 is required for an efficient LPS receptor complex endosomal relocation and the activation of the TRIF pathway.
Categories: Immunology

Motile Collectors: Platelets Promote Innate Immunity

Immunity - 16 January 2018 - 12:00am
Platelets migrate in vitro but the significance of platelet migration in vivo remains unclear. In a recent issue of Cell, Gaertner et al. (2017) demonstrate that active platelet migration in vivo promotes mechano-scavenging of bacterial pathogens and neutrophil activation.
Categories: Immunology

Activation of p53 in Immature Myeloid Precursor Cells Controls Differentiation into Ly6c+CD103+ Monocytic Antigen-Presenting Cells in Tumors

Immunity - 16 January 2018 - 12:00am
Conventional CD103+ DCs are critical APCs for cross-presentation of tumor antigens. Sharma and colleagues show that a potent population of Batf3-dependent, CD103+ cross-presenting APCs can arise during tumor immunotherapy via direct differentiation of immature monocytic precursors present in the peripheral MDSC pool.
Categories: Immunology

Regulation of the Immune Response by the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor

Immunity - 16 January 2018 - 12:00am
AhR signaling integrates the effects of the environment and metabolism on the immune response. Gutiérrez-Vázquez and Quintana review the role of AhR in the regulation of the immune response in the context of autoimmunity, infection, and cancer, and discuss the potential opportunities and challenges of developing AhR-targeted therapeutics.
Categories: Immunology

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