Cancer in wildlife: patterns of emergence
Cancer in wildlife: patterns of emergence, Published online: 16 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41568-018-0045-0Cancer is ubiquitous in wildlife and is an increasing concern for endangered species. This Review discusses the impact of cancer on animal species and highlights how studying these effects could reveal shared mechanisms of cancer predisposition between animals and humans.
Nutrient scavenging in cancer
Nutrient scavenging in cancer, Published online: 10 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41568-018-0048-xThis Review discusses nutrient scavenging, a process by which cancer cells use macromolecules from their environment to fuel cell metabolism and growth even when nutrients are limiting.
The sugar loop
The sugar loop, Published online: 02 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41568-018-0049-9PI3K inhibition in solid cancers driven by PI3K catalytic subunit-α has shown limited clinical benefit. This might be due to activation of a glucose–insulin feedback loop, which can be interrupted by dietary or pharmaceutical approaches, thereby improving therapy outcome.
Subclones work together
Subclones work together, Published online: 30 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41568-018-0047-yVinci et al. provide evidence for subclonal cooperation driving the maintenance of tumour heterogeneity in paediatric high-grade gliomas.
How to predict the future
How to predict the future, Published online: 26 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41568-018-0046-zTwo groups have used targeted sequencing to identify features of clonal haematopoiesis in healthy individuals including the number of somatic mutations, the presence of specific mutations and clonal size, which predict risk of developing acute myeloid leukaemia years before diagnosis.
Clinical tumour sequencing for precision oncology: time for a universal strategy
Clinical tumour sequencing for precision oncology: time for a universal strategy, Published online: 20 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41568-018-0043-2Comprehensive genomic characterization of patient tumours has the potential to advance therapies and inform basic cancer research. In this Comment, David B. Solit and colleagues provide their personal perspective on the implementation of an enterprise-wide, prospective clinical sequencing strategy and make a call for a universal approach to next-generation sequencing-based tumour profiling.
Second chances, Published online: 18 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41568-018-0044-1Mutant KRAS has so far proven to be an undruggable target for lung adenocarcinoma and a widely held assumption is that KRAS mutations confer independence from upstream signalling. Two groups have now independently shown this might not be the case and suggest pan-ERBB inhibitors could be used to treat patients with KRAS-driven lung cancer
Extracellular ATP and P2 purinergic signalling in the tumour microenvironment
Extracellular ATP and P2 purinergic signalling in the tumour microenvironment, Published online: 13 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41568-018-0037-0In this Review, Di Virgilio et al. describe how extracellular ATP and P2 purinergic signalling can shape the tumour microenvironment to both promote and restrain tumour progression and outline the opportunities to harness nucleotide receptor signalling as an anticancer strategy.
Every step of the way: integrins in cancer progression and metastasis
Every step of the way: integrins in cancer progression and metastasis, Published online: 12 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41568-018-0038-zIn this Review, Hamidi and Ivaska discuss the contribution of integrins to the different steps of cancer progression, highlighting some of the recently identified unconventional roles of integrins and novel opportunities to target integrin signalling.
STAT3 on the brain
STAT3 on the brain, Published online: 09 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41568-018-0042-3Priego et al. show that a subpopulation of reactive astrocytes expressing signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is crucial for the development of brain metastases and report positive initial clinical data that inhibiting STAT3 can reduce metastasis.
From rock ‘n’ roll to heavy metal
From rock ‘n’ roll to heavy metal, Published online: 28 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41568-018-0041-4Three studies published in Developmental Cell, Nature and Nature Medicine shed new light on mechanisms of cancer-associated cachexia in early and advanced disease.
Success stories, Published online: 22 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41568-018-0039-yAnalyses of clinical trial patients with exceptional responses show that adoptive T cell therapy can be optimised to improve effectiveness in patients of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia and breast cancer.
Tumours trigger systemic disruption
Tumours trigger systemic disruption, Published online: 21 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41568-018-0040-5Breast tumours in mice promote metabolic changes in the liver and sleep disruption through increasing activity of hypocretin (also known as orexin) neurons (HO neurons).
Falling short to compete
Falling short to compete, Published online: 19 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41568-018-0036-1Increased shortening of RNA 3′ untranslated regions associated with tumorigenic transformation interferes with competing endogenous RNA (eRNA) networks, which results in trans-repression of tumour suppressors through microRNA-mediated silencing.
Metabolizing microbes in control
Metabolizing microbes in control, Published online: 18 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41568-018-0035-2The gut microbiota can metabolize bile acids to affect immunosurveillance in the liver of mice and indirectly control the growth of primary liver tumours and liver metastases.
Targeting ATR in cancer
Targeting ATR in cancer, Published online: 13 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41568-018-0034-3This Opinion provides insight into the potential of targeting the replication stress response in cancer and discusses the strategy of inhibiting ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein (ATR) and the need for reliable biomarkers to enable patient stratification.
Eco-evolutionary causes and consequences of temporal changes in intratumoural blood flow
Eco-evolutionary causes and consequences of temporal changes in intratumoural blood flow, Published online: 11 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41568-018-0030-7This Opinion proposes that temporal variations in intratumoural blood flow are the result of eco-evolutionary dynamics. It describes adaptive strategies to stochastically varying environments that may strongly affect observed cancer phenotypes and clinical outcomes including formation of metastases and response to treatment.
Insights on cancer resistance in vertebrates: reptiles as a parallel system to mammals
Insights on cancer resistance in vertebrates: reptiles as a parallel system to mammals, Published online: 11 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41568-018-0033-4Insights on cancer resistance in vertebrates: reptiles as a parallel system to mammals
It’s all Greek to me
It’s all Greek to me, Published online: 06 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41568-018-0032-5Tumour-associated neutrophils can inhibit the proliferation of pro-tumoural interleukin-17 (IL-17)+ γδ T cells via production of reactive oxygen species.
Lethally high ROS levels thwart resistance
Lethally high ROS levels thwart resistance, Published online: 05 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41568-018-0031-6Wang, Leite de Oliveira et al. show that BRAFV600E-mutant melanomas that are resistant to BRAF and MEK inhibitors are vulnerable to increased levels of reactive oxygen species and that this can be exploited therapeutically using a histone deacetylase inhibitor.