Cancer

T cell drivers in NASH-HCC

Nature Rev. Cancer - 16 April 2021 - 12:00am

Nature Reviews Cancer, Published online: 16 April 2021; doi:10.1038/s41568-021-00362-0

Pfister et al. demonstrate a role for unconventionally activated CD8+PD1+ T cells in NASH-HCC, which limits response to immunotherapy.
Categories: Cancer

Bacteria prepare the niche

Nature Rev. Cancer - 15 April 2021 - 12:00am

Nature Reviews Cancer, Published online: 15 April 2021; doi:10.1038/s41568-021-00361-1

Bertocchi et al. show that tumour-resident bacteria in colorectal cancer disseminate to the liver via an impaired gut vascular barrier and promote the liver pre-metastatic niche.
Categories: Cancer

Mechanosurveillance of tumour metastasis

Nature Rev. Cancer - 14 April 2021 - 12:00am

Nature Reviews Cancer, Published online: 14 April 2021; doi:10.1038/s41568-021-00360-2

Tello-Lafoz et al. find that the increased rigidity of cancer cells during metastasis can result in a biophysical vulnerability to killing by cytotoxic lymphocytes through a form of mechanosurveillance.
Categories: Cancer

Promoting cancer genomics research in Africa: a roadmap

Nature Rev. Cancer - 12 April 2021 - 12:00am

Nature Reviews Cancer, Published online: 12 April 2021; doi:10.1038/s41568-021-00359-9

Cancer genomics research in Africa is crucial to understanding the genetic architecture of cancer and tailoring cancer diagnoses and therapies to African populations. Creating this research enterprise in Africa has to be purposeful with a roadmap that incorporates individual scientist-, international collaborator-, university or institution-, and scientific organization-level factors.
Categories: Cancer

Systemic immunity in cancer

Nature Rev. Cancer - 9 April 2021 - 12:00am

Nature Reviews Cancer, Published online: 09 April 2021; doi:10.1038/s41568-021-00347-z

An improved understanding of tumour immunology and therapy must assess the systemic immune landscape beyond the tumour microenvironment. This Review outlines peripheral immune cell reorganization in response to tumour growth and therapy, their contribution to immunotherapy responses and their potential as diagnostic or predictive biomarkers.
Categories: Cancer

Gut instinct: a call to study the biology of early-onset colorectal cancer disparities

Nature Rev. Cancer - 8 April 2021 - 12:00am

Nature Reviews Cancer, Published online: 08 April 2021; doi:10.1038/s41568-021-00356-y

The incidence of early-onset colorectal cancer (EOCRC) continues to rise and disproportionately affects people of African descent. This Comment advocates for mechanistic studies that can help mitigate EOCRC disparities.
Categories: Cancer

Bispecifics target cancers’ most wanted

Nature Rev. Cancer - 31 March 2021 - 12:00am

Nature Reviews Cancer, Published online: 31 March 2021; doi:10.1038/s41568-021-00354-0

Two recent papers describe the development of bispecific antibodies that specifically target neoantigens derived from common oncogenic mutations.
Categories: Cancer

<i>Cells are Us</i> – combining research and public engagement

Nature Rev. Cancer - 24 March 2021 - 12:00am

Nature Reviews Cancer, Published online: 24 March 2021; doi:10.1038/s41568-021-00349-x

The COVID-19 pandemic has reminded scientists and clinicians about the importance of public engagement with science. This World View argues that one way accomplish this is to embed an informal science learning centre within a research institute.
Categories: Cancer

Early effects of <i>BRCA1</i> mutations in the breast

Nature Rev. Cancer - 24 March 2021 - 12:00am

Nature Reviews Cancer, Published online: 24 March 2021; doi:10.1038/s41568-021-00351-3

Bach et al. find that loss of the tumour suppressor BRCA1 may drive the development of triple negative breast cancer through inducing aberrant alveolar differentiation of luminal progenitor cells.
Categories: Cancer

MDMX drives pre-leukaemia progression

Nature Rev. Cancer - 24 March 2021 - 12:00am

Nature Reviews Cancer, Published online: 24 March 2021; doi:10.1038/s41568-021-00352-2

Ueda et al. report that overexpression of MDMX in pre-leukaemic stem cells provides these cells with a competitive advantage and promotes the progression of various pre-leukaemic conditions to acute myeloid leukaemia in several mouse models.
Categories: Cancer

EGFR is going circular

Nature Rev. Cancer - 23 March 2021 - 12:00am

Nature Reviews Cancer, Published online: 23 March 2021; doi:10.1038/s41568-021-00350-4

Gao, Xia, Li, Zhang et al. show that a circular RNA-encoded variant of E-Cadherin stimulates EGFR signalling independently of EGF, and contributes to glioblastoma tumorigenesis and anti-EGFR therapy resistance.
Categories: Cancer

Autophagy in tumour immunity and therapy

Nature Rev. Cancer - 23 March 2021 - 12:00am

Nature Reviews Cancer, Published online: 23 March 2021; doi:10.1038/s41568-021-00344-2

Autophagy is induced by stress signals in cancer cells as well as immune cells in the tumour microenvironment. This Review discusses how autophagy modulates antitumour immunity in cancer cell autonomous and non-autonomous ways, and potential approaches for targeting autophagy to enhance the antitumour immune response.
Categories: Cancer

Targeting FAK in anticancer combination therapies

Nature Rev. Cancer - 17 March 2021 - 12:00am

Nature Reviews Cancer, Published online: 17 March 2021; doi:10.1038/s41568-021-00340-6

Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is overexpressed in many cancers and is involved in a multitude of oncogenic processes and resistance mechanisms. This Review discusses the rationale and preclinical evidence for FAK-based combination therapies and strategies for future development.
Categories: Cancer

Genetic and non-genetic clonal diversity in cancer evolution

Nature Rev. Cancer - 16 March 2021 - 12:00am

Nature Reviews Cancer, Published online: 16 March 2021; doi:10.1038/s41568-021-00336-2

This Review discusses the role of functional (impacting tumour phenotype) and non-functional intra-tumour heterogeneity (ITH) in cancer evolution, highlighting the importance of considering genetic and non-genetic factors and their impact on patient outcomes.
Categories: Cancer

Antigen presentation in cancer: insights into tumour immunogenicity and immune evasion

Nature Rev. Cancer - 9 March 2021 - 12:00am

Nature Reviews Cancer, Published online: 09 March 2021; doi:10.1038/s41568-021-00339-z

Immune checkpoint inhibition does not benefit all patients. This Review discusses how antigen presentation, which is crucial for the success of this therapy, may be disrupted in tumours and dendritic cells of patients, and how tumours may further evade natural killer cell recognition.
Categories: Cancer

MYC inhibition, courtesy of <i>E. coli</i>

Nature Rev. Cancer - 1 March 2021 - 12:00am

Nature Reviews Cancer, Published online: 01 March 2021; doi:10.1038/s41568-021-00345-1

Butler and Cafaro et al. identify a mechanism of MYC inhibition by uropathogenic Escherichia coli that may have therapeutic potential in cancer.
Categories: Cancer

IgA strikes twice in ovarian cancer

Nature Rev. Cancer - 24 February 2021 - 12:00am

Nature Reviews Cancer, Published online: 24 February 2021; doi:10.1038/s41568-021-00342-4

Biswas et al. show that B cell infiltration in ovarian cancer leads to humoral immune responses dominated by polyclonal IgA, which mark ovarian cancer cells to be removed by myeloid cells, and also sensitize cancer cells to T cell-mediated cytolysis thereby controlling tumour growth.
Categories: Cancer

Clonal expansion in non-cancer tissues

Nature Rev. Cancer - 24 February 2021 - 12:00am

Nature Reviews Cancer, Published online: 24 February 2021; doi:10.1038/s41568-021-00335-3

Clonal expansion in phenotypically normal or non-cancer tissues is commonly seen in association with ageing and/or in response to environmental insults and chronic inflammation, but does not necessarily indicate cancer development. This Review discusses recent findings on clonal expansion in these tissues and their biological significance in cancer development, ageing and inflammatory diseases.
Categories: Cancer

Overcoming hurdles in cancer immunotherapy

Nature Rev. Cancer - 22 February 2021 - 12:00am

Nature Reviews Cancer, Published online: 22 February 2021; doi:10.1038/s41568-021-00343-3

Two recent papers report the first-in-human clinical trials investigating the efficacy and safety of faecal microbiota transplantation for metastatic melanoma that is refractory to cancer immunotherapy.
Categories: Cancer

A driver gene hiding in plain sight

Nature Rev. Cancer - 19 February 2021 - 12:00am

Nature Reviews Cancer, Published online: 19 February 2021; doi:10.1038/s41568-021-00341-5

Yuan, Flores et al. find that NSD3, which encodes a histone H3 lysine 36 methyltransferase, is likely an important of driver of a subset of lung squamous cell carcinomas and show that these tumours may be sensitive to bromodomain inhibitors.
Categories: Cancer

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