Cancer

The molecular landscape of head and neck cancer

Nature Rev. Cancer - 2 March 2018 - 12:00am

The molecular landscape of head and neck cancer

The molecular landscape of head and neck cancer, Published online: 02 March 2018; doi:10.1038/nrc.2018.11

Head and neck cancer is an unexpectedly heterogeneous disease. In this Review, Leemans, Snijders and Brakenhoff provide an update on the molecular biology of head and neck cancer, outline the role of human papillomavirus and discuss the functional role of genes involved in malignant progression to identify subgroups to personalize treatment.
Categories: Cancer

Opportunities and challenges for human papillomavirus vaccination in cancer

Nature Rev. Cancer - 2 March 2018 - 12:00am

Opportunities and challenges for human papillomavirus vaccination in cancer

Opportunities and challenges for human papillomavirus vaccination in cancer, Published online: 02 March 2018; doi:10.1038/nrc.2018.13

To efficiently prevent cancers associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, especially cervical cancer, effective vaccines and high vaccination coverage are required. This Review provides insight into virological, immunological and strategical progress in HPV vaccines as well as implementation and potential advances.
Categories: Cancer

Drug delivery: DNA nanorobots — seek and destroy

Nature Rev. Cancer - 2 March 2018 - 12:00am

Drug delivery: DNA nanorobots — seek and destroy

Drug delivery: DNA nanorobots — seek and destroy, Published online: 02 March 2018; doi:10.1038/nrc.2018.19

Li et al. report the development of 'DNA nanorobots' carrying a thrombin protease payload that induce coagulation and necrosis at the tumour site, illustrating their therapeutic potential as drug delivery systems.
Categories: Cancer

ORY-1001, a Potent and Selective Covalent KDM1A Inhibitor, for the Treatment of Acute Leukemia

Cell Cancer - 1 March 2018 - 12:00am
Maes et al. develop ORY-1001, a highly potent and selective inhibitor of KDM1A/LSD1. ORY-1001 induces differentiation of leukemic cells in cell lines, primary AML samples, and AML patients. ORY-1001 is able to decrease leukemic growth and prolong survival of mouse models of acute leukemia.
Categories: Cancer

The SS18-SSX Oncoprotein Hijacks KDM2B-PRC1.1 to Drive Synovial Sarcoma

Cell Cancer - 1 March 2018 - 12:00am
Banito et al. show that SS18-SSX fusions characteristic of synovial sarcoma associate with KDM2B-PRC1.1, a non-canonical polycomb repressive complex 1, to aberrantly activate the expression of developmentally regulated transcription factors that are normally targets of polycomb-mediated gene repression.
Categories: Cancer

Genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 Screen Identifies Leukemia-Specific Dependence on a Pre-mRNA Metabolic Pathway Regulated by DCPS

Cell Cancer - 22 February 2018 - 12:00am
Yamauchi et al. perform in vitro and in vivo CRISPR-Cas9 genetic screening of p53 WT AML to identify potential therapeutic targets. They find that AML relies on the DCPS decapping enzyme, and a DCPS inhibitor shows anti-leukemia activity in tumor models without impacting normal hematopoiesis.
Categories: Cancer

Genomic instability: The sting of metastasis

Nature Rev. Cancer - 22 February 2018 - 12:00am

Genomic instability: The sting of metastasis

Genomic instability: The sting of metastasis, Published online: 22 February 2018; doi:10.1038/nrc.2018.16

Data presented by Bakhoum, Ngo et al. suggest that chromosomal instability can promote metastasis through a cGAS–STING-dependent response to cytosolic DNA.
Categories: Cancer

Tumour microenvironment: Fibroblast subtype provides niche for cancer stem cells

Nature Rev. Cancer - 22 February 2018 - 12:00am

Tumour microenvironment: Fibroblast subtype provides niche for cancer stem cells

Tumour microenvironment: Fibroblast subtype provides niche for cancer stem cells, Published online: 22 February 2018; doi:10.1038/nrc.2018.18

A subset of cancer-associated firboblasts, defined by the presence of the cell surface markers CD10 and GPR77, promotes tumour formation and chemoresistance by providing a niche for cancer stem cells.
Categories: Cancer

Breast cancer: Staying silent

Nature Rev. Cancer - 22 February 2018 - 12:00am

Breast cancer: Staying silent

Breast cancer: Staying silent, Published online: 22 February 2018; doi:10.1038/nrc.2018.17

Mitogen- and stress-activated kinase 1 (MSK1) has been identified as an epigenetic modulator of luminal gene expression in breast cancer, maintaining latency of bone micrometastases.
Categories: Cancer

Gut microbiota injury in allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation

Nature Rev. Cancer - 16 February 2018 - 12:00am

Gut microbiota injury in allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation

Gut microbiota injury in allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation, Published online: 16 February 2018; doi:10.1038/nrc.2018.10

Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is a well-established treatment for many haematopoietic malignancies but often results in life-threatening complications, such as graft-versus-host disease, relapse and infections. This Review discusses the potential role of intestinal microbiota in complications after allo-HSCT.
Categories: Cancer

Using immunotherapy to boost the abscopal effect

Nature Rev. Cancer - 16 February 2018 - 12:00am

Using immunotherapy to boost the abscopal effect

Using immunotherapy to boost the abscopal effect, Published online: 16 February 2018; doi:10.1038/nrc.2018.6

The abscopal effect, which is the regression of metastatic cancer at distant sites during radiotherapy, is somewhat rare but can be promoted by immunotherapy. This Opinion article describes emerging concepts and limitations of using a combination of radiotherapy and immunotherapy to boost the abscopal effect.
Categories: Cancer

Fibroblast Heterogeneity and Immunosuppressive Environment in Human Breast Cancer

Cell Cancer - 15 February 2018 - 12:00am
Costa et al. identify four subsets of carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAF) in breast cancer. CAF-S1 promotes an immunosuppressive microenvironment by recruiting CD4+CD25+ T cells, via secreting CXCL12, and promoting their differentiation to Tregs and survival, via expressing T cell interacting proteins.
Categories: Cancer

Transcriptional Regulation of the Warburg Effect in Cancer by SIX1

Cell Cancer - 15 February 2018 - 12:00am
Li et al. show that transcription factor SIX1 regulates aerobic glycolysis in cancer by binding promoters and recruiting HBO1 and AIB1 to induce the expression of glycolytic genes. SIX1 is negatively regulated by miR-548a-3p, and modulation of components of this pathway affects tumor metabolism and growth.
Categories: Cancer

c-Raf in KRas Mutant Cancers: A Moving Target

Cell Cancer - 12 February 2018 - 12:00am
Therapies for KRas cancers remain a major clinical need. In the current issue of Cancer Cell, Sanclemente and coworkers in Mariano Barbacid’s group validate c-Raf as a prime target for these cancers. c-Raf ablation caused regression of advanced KRasG12V/Trp53 tumors, without obvious systemic toxicity and without affecting MAPK signaling.
Categories: Cancer

HIPPO Stampede in Nerve Sheath Tumors

Cell Cancer - 12 February 2018 - 12:00am
Current therapies for malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) are ineffective. The study by Wu et al. in this issue of Cancer Cell provides evidence that the HIPPO pathway is overactive in human MPNSTs and that combined modulation of LATS1/2-YAP/TAZ and PDGFR signaling in Schwann cells reduces MPNST growth.
Categories: Cancer

Glycans Pave the Way for Immunotherapy in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

Cell Cancer - 12 February 2018 - 12:00am
The clinical efficacy of therapies targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway is still limited. In this issue of Cancer Cell, Li and colleagues identify a PD-L1 glycosylation-based mechanism in triple-negative breast cancer that fosters immunosuppression by enhancing interactions with PD-1. Targeting glycosylated PD-L1 with a drug-conjugated antibody opens new avenues for treatment.
Categories: Cancer

Neomorphic ERα Mutations Drive Progression in Breast Cancer and Present a Challenge for New Drug Discovery

Cell Cancer - 12 February 2018 - 12:00am
In this issue of Cancer Cell, Jeselsohn et al. dissect the function of several of the most clinically important estrogen receptor alpha mutants associated with endocrine therapy resistance in breast cancer and demonstrate that they manifest disease-relevant neomorphic activities that likely contribute to tumor pathogenesis.
Categories: Cancer

An Epigenetic Switch: From Senescent Melanocytes to Malignant Melanoma (and Back)

Cell Cancer - 12 February 2018 - 12:00am
Oncogene-induced senescence is an important barrier during melanomagenesis. In this issue of Cancer Cell, Yu et al. show how elevated expression of structurally unrelated H3K9 demethylases disables senescence and constitutes a liability that can be exploited to restore senescence in melanoma by pharmacological inhibition of these epigenetic regulators.
Categories: Cancer

Eradication of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cells by Targeting Glycosylated PD-L1

Cell Cancer - 12 February 2018 - 12:00am
Li et al. show that glycosylation of PD-L1 is essential for PD-L1/PD-1 interaction and immunosuppression in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). They generate a glycosylation-specific antibody that induces PD-L1 internalization and an antibody-drug conjugate with potent anti-tumor activities in TNBC models.
Categories: Cancer

DNA Methylation Patterns Separate Senescence from Transformation Potential and Indicate Cancer Risk

Cell Cancer - 12 February 2018 - 12:00am
Xie et al. show that transformation-associated methylation changes arise stochastically and evolve independently of senescence. A subset of transformation-associated hypermethylated genes favoring cell self-renewal and survival exhibits highest methylation gains during aging and early tumorigenesis.
Categories: Cancer

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