Neuroscience

Remapping and realignment in the human hippocampal formation predict context-dependent spatial behavior

Nature Neuroscience - 15 April 2021 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience, Published online: 15 April 2021; doi:10.1038/s41593-021-00835-3

Julian and Doeller show that trial-by-trial modulation of map-like representations in the human hippocampal–entorhinal system predicts contextual memory retrieval during virtual reality navigation independent of visual experience.
Categories: Neuroscience

Rescue of maternal immune activation-induced behavioral abnormalities in adult mouse offspring by pathogen-activated maternal T<sub>reg</sub> cells

Nature Neuroscience - 15 April 2021 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience, Published online: 15 April 2021; doi:10.1038/s41593-021-00837-1

Xu et al. developed and characterized a new animal model of maternal immune activation based on a parasite mimetic. They show that immune and behavioral abnormalities in adult offspring are reversed by adoptive transfer of regulatory T cells.
Categories: Neuroscience

Two views on the cognitive brain

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 15 April 2021 - 12:00am

Nature Reviews Neuroscience, Published online: 15 April 2021; doi:10.1038/s41583-021-00448-6

Neuroscience can explain cognition by considering single neurons and their connections (a ‘Sherringtonian’ view) or by considering neural spaces constructed by populations of neurons (a ‘Hopfieldian’ view). In this Perspective, Barack and Krakauer argue that the Hopfieldian view has the conceptual resources to explain cognition more fully the Sherringtonian view.
Categories: Neuroscience

Brain proteome-wide association study implicates novel proteins in depression pathogenesis

Nature Neuroscience - 12 April 2021 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience, Published online: 12 April 2021; doi:10.1038/s41593-021-00832-6

Wingo et al. integrate depression GWAS results with human brain proteomes to perform proteome-wide association studies followed by Mendelian randomization. They identify 25 proteins as potential causal mediators of depression, of which 20 are new.
Categories: Neuroscience

Flexible modulation of sequence generation in the entorhinal–hippocampal system

Nature Neuroscience - 12 April 2021 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience, Published online: 12 April 2021; doi:10.1038/s41593-021-00831-7

McNamee et al. develop a theory of entorhinal–hippocampal processing. Distributed entorhinal input drives hippocampal activity between distinct statistical and dynamical regimes of activity, thereby unifying several empirical observations.
Categories: Neuroscience

Molecular mechanisms of brain water transport

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 12 April 2021 - 12:00am

Nature Reviews Neuroscience, Published online: 12 April 2021; doi:10.1038/s41583-021-00454-8

The impairment of brain fluid homeostasis is a feature of various conditions, highlighting the need to better understand brain water transport for drug development. Here, Nanna MacAulay reviews the molecular mechanisms underlying transmembrane water movement in neurons and glia and across brain barriers, emphasizing the part played by water cotransporters in this process.
Categories: Neuroscience

Spatial and temporal scales of dopamine transmission

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 9 April 2021 - 12:00am

Nature Reviews Neuroscience, Published online: 09 April 2021; doi:10.1038/s41583-021-00455-7

Dopamine is often portrayed as a diffuse, slow neuromodulator, yet such signalling cannot explain its broad and sometimes rapid roles. Here, Liu, Goel and Kaeser review recent insights into dopamine release and receptors and present a new framework — the domain-overlap model — for dopamine signalling.
Categories: Neuroscience

Author Correction: Long-term behavioral and cell-type-specific molecular effects of early life stress are mediated by H3K79me2 dynamics in medium spiny neurons

Nature Neuroscience - 8 April 2021 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience, Published online: 08 April 2021; doi:10.1038/s41593-021-00848-y

Author Correction: Long-term behavioral and cell-type-specific molecular effects of early life stress are mediated by H3K79me2 dynamics in medium spiny neurons
Categories: Neuroscience

Brain training

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 7 April 2021 - 12:00am

Nature Reviews Neuroscience, Published online: 07 April 2021; doi:10.1038/s41583-021-00462-8

Brain training
Categories: Neuroscience

Astrocytes and alcohol

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 7 April 2021 - 12:00am

Nature Reviews Neuroscience, Published online: 07 April 2021; doi:10.1038/s41583-021-00463-7

Astrocytes and alcohol
Categories: Neuroscience

Shape-shifting organoids

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 7 April 2021 - 12:00am

Nature Reviews Neuroscience, Published online: 07 April 2021; doi:10.1038/s41583-021-00461-9

Shape-shifting organoids
Categories: Neuroscience

Know thy future self

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 7 April 2021 - 12:00am

Nature Reviews Neuroscience, Published online: 07 April 2021; doi:10.1038/s41583-021-00464-6

In humans, the anterior lateral prefrontal cortex is crucial for assessing the likelihood that a future decision will be correct.
Categories: Neuroscience

Attractive odours

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 7 April 2021 - 12:00am

Nature Reviews Neuroscience, Published online: 07 April 2021; doi:10.1038/s41583-021-00460-w

Attractive odours
Categories: Neuroscience

Channelopathies in fragile X syndrome

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 7 April 2021 - 12:00am

Nature Reviews Neuroscience, Published online: 07 April 2021; doi:10.1038/s41583-021-00445-9

Ion channel dysfunctions contribute significantly to fragile X pathophysiology. In this Review, Deng and Klyachko discuss the mechanisms underlying the effects of these channelopathies in fragile X syndrome, and the therapeutic potential of pharmacological interventions that target ion channels.
Categories: Neuroscience

An amygdala-to-hypothalamus circuit for social reward

Nature Neuroscience - 5 April 2021 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience, Published online: 05 April 2021; doi:10.1038/s41593-021-00828-2

Social interactions and relationships are often associated with a rewarding experience. Hu et al. show that mice display positive reinforcement of social interaction, and they identify an amygdala-to-hypothalamus circuit in mediating this social reward.
Categories: Neuroscience

A genetically encoded sensor for measuring serotonin dynamics

Nature Neuroscience - 5 April 2021 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience, Published online: 05 April 2021; doi:10.1038/s41593-021-00823-7

The authors develop a genetically encoded GPCR-based sensor to image serotonin dynamics in behaving animals with high specificity, sensitivity and spatiotemporal resolution.
Categories: Neuroscience

Rotational dynamics reduce interference between sensory and memory representations

Nature Neuroscience - 5 April 2021 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience, Published online: 05 April 2021; doi:10.1038/s41593-021-00821-9

During implicit learning, the authors find that sensory representations in mouse auditory cortex evolve over time, rotating into orthogonal memory representations. This allows short-term memories to avoid interference from new sensory inputs.
Categories: Neuroscience

To catch a memory through covert ops

Nature Neuroscience - 1 April 2021 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience, Published online: 01 April 2021; doi:10.1038/s41593-021-00834-4

Disrupting reconsolidation of the maladaptive memories underlying post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) could be transformative for treatment. However, patients cannot undergo the direct re-exposure to trauma-cues used to induce reconsolidation in animal studies. Ressler and colleagues report ‘covert’ memory reactivation in rats, bolstering hopes for translation of reconsolidation-based interventions.
Categories: Neuroscience

Covert capture and attenuation of a hippocampus-dependent fear memory

Nature Neuroscience - 1 April 2021 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience, Published online: 01 April 2021; doi:10.1038/s41593-021-00825-5

This study shows that hippocampus-dependent fear memories can be indirectly reactivated, captured and pharmacologically attenuated in rats. This reinforces the utility of imaginal reminders to target traumatic memories in humans.
Categories: Neuroscience

Gain of toxic function by long-term AAV9-mediated SMN overexpression in the sensorimotor circuit

Nature Neuroscience - 1 April 2021 - 12:00am

Nature Neuroscience, Published online: 01 April 2021; doi:10.1038/s41593-021-00827-3

AAV9-SMN is used to treat SMA. This study shows that AAV9-mediated SMN overexpression in mice causes late-onset motor dysfunction and synaptic and neuronal loss through protein aggregation, suggesting caution on the long-term safety of SMN gene therapy.
Categories: Neuroscience

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