Neuroscience

Neural circuits: Balancing threats

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 5 April 2018 - 12:00am

Neural circuits: Balancing threats

Neural circuits: Balancing threats, Published online: 05 April 2018; doi:10.1038/nrn.2018.35

Two studies provide insight into the neural circuits integrating competing threat signals, such as pain and hunger.
Categories: Neuroscience

Techniques: In a split sequence

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 5 April 2018 - 12:00am

Techniques: In a split sequence

Techniques: In a split sequence, Published online: 05 April 2018; doi:10.1038/nrn.2018.37

Techniques: In a split sequence
Categories: Neuroscience

Surviving threats: neural circuit and computational implications of a new taxonomy of defensive behaviour

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 29 March 2018 - 12:00am

Surviving threats: neural circuit and computational implications of a new taxonomy of defensive behaviour

Surviving threats: neural circuit and computational implications of a new taxonomy of defensive behaviour, Published online: 29 March 2018; doi:10.1038/nrn.2018.22

Animals exhibit a variety of different responses to threatening stimuli, including both innate and instrumental behaviours. LeDoux and Daw describe a new taxonomy of defensive behaviours and review what we know about the underlying neural circuits and computational processes.
Categories: Neuroscience

Building three-dimensional human brain organoids

Nature Neuroscience - 28 March 2018 - 12:00am

Building three-dimensional human brain organoids

Building three-dimensional human brain organoids, Published online: 28 March 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0107-3

Building three-dimensional human brain organoids
Categories: Neuroscience

U-turns in the brain

Nature Neuroscience - 28 March 2018 - 12:00am

U-turns in the brain

U-turns in the brain, Published online: 28 March 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0122-4

When making decisions, new information sometimes calls for a change of mind. New results indicate that regions of the prefrontal cortex play distinct roles in evaluating new evidence in light of a previous choice and translating the result of this evaluation process into an explicit report of one’s subjective confidence.
Categories: Neuroscience

CA1 pyramidal cell diversity enabling parallel information processing in the hippocampus

Nature Neuroscience - 28 March 2018 - 12:00am

CA1 pyramidal cell diversity enabling parallel information processing in the hippocampus

CA1 pyramidal cell diversity enabling parallel information processing in the hippocampus, Published online: 28 March 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0118-0

In this Review the authors discuss recent findings supporting a framework in which the hippocampus comprises principal cell subpopulations forming nonuniform parallel circuits that are independently controlled and affect a variety of behaviors.
Categories: Neuroscience

Microglia’s heretical self-renewal

Nature Neuroscience - 28 March 2018 - 12:00am

Microglia’s heretical self-renewal

Microglia’s heretical self-renewal, Published online: 28 March 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0123-3

The dogma that self-renewal is a defining characteristic of stem cells, which stemmed from studies of the hematopoietic hierarchy and quickly spread by analogy to all tissues, has been shattered by scientists pointing a microscope at the hematopoietic system itself. A microglial cell is clearly fully differentiated, and yet it self-renews.
Categories: Neuroscience

Cortical travelling waves: mechanisms and computational principles

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 22 March 2018 - 12:00am

Cortical travelling waves: mechanisms and computational principles

Cortical travelling waves: mechanisms and computational principles, Published online: 22 March 2018; doi:10.1038/nrn.2018.20

Advanced recording techniques have enabled the identification of travelling waves of neuronal activity in different areas of the cortex. Sejnowski and colleagues review these findings, consider the mechanisms by which travelling waves are generated and evaluate their possible roles in cortical function.
Categories: Neuroscience

Neural development: Instigating engulfment

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 22 March 2018 - 12:00am

Neural development: Instigating engulfment

Neural development: Instigating engulfment, Published online: 22 March 2018; doi:10.1038/nrn.2018.31

In the spinal cord and thalamus of mice, astrocyte-generated interleukin-33 instructs microglia to engulf synapses and thus regulates neural circuit development.
Categories: Neuroscience

Spinal cord: Making new connections

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 22 March 2018 - 12:00am

Spinal cord: Making new connections

Spinal cord: Making new connections, Published online: 22 March 2018; doi:10.1038/nrn.2018.33

This study shows that human neural stem cell grafts re-establish a neuronal relay across spinal cord injury in rhesus monkeys.
Categories: Neuroscience

A brainstem bypass for spinal cord injury

Nature Neuroscience - 19 March 2018 - 12:00am

A brainstem bypass for spinal cord injury

A brainstem bypass for spinal cord injury, Published online: 19 March 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0099-z

Spinal cord injury disrupts connectivity between the brain and the body. With electrochemical neuromodulation and intensive rehabilitation training, the cortex can functionally connect with spinal circuits below injury by relaying signals through the brainstem.
Categories: Neuroscience

Circuit dissection of the role of somatostatin in itch and pain

Nature Neuroscience - 19 March 2018 - 12:00am

Circuit dissection of the role of somatostatin in itch and pain

Circuit dissection of the role of somatostatin in itch and pain, Published online: 19 March 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0119-z

Huang et al. demonstrate that somatostatin (Sst)-expressing primary afferents are pruriceptors. In spinal cord, they show that Sst potentiates itch by disinhibition involving dynorphin-expressing spinal neurons and that Sst also suppresses pain.
Categories: Neuroscience

Myelin remodeling through experience-dependent oligodendrogenesis in the adult somatosensory cortex

Nature Neuroscience - 19 March 2018 - 12:00am

Myelin remodeling through experience-dependent oligodendrogenesis in the adult somatosensory cortex

Myelin remodeling through experience-dependent oligodendrogenesis in the adult somatosensory cortex, Published online: 19 March 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0121-5

Oligodendrocytes are generated in adult somatosensory cortex, but few successfully integrate to form myelin. Sensory enrichment alters myelination patterns by enhancing oligodendrogenesis rather than altering the length of existing myelin sheaths.
Categories: Neuroscience

Publisher Correction: Dysregulation of the epigenetic landscape of normal aging in Alzheimer’s disease

Nature Neuroscience - 19 March 2018 - 12:00am

Publisher Correction: Dysregulation of the epigenetic landscape of normal aging in Alzheimer’s disease

Publisher Correction: Dysregulation of the epigenetic landscape of normal aging in Alzheimer’s disease, Published online: 19 March 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0124-2

Publisher Correction: Dysregulation of the epigenetic landscape of normal aging in Alzheimer’s disease
Categories: Neuroscience

Cortico–reticulo–spinal circuit reorganization enables functional recovery after severe spinal cord contusion

Nature Neuroscience - 19 March 2018 - 12:00am

Cortico–reticulo–spinal circuit reorganization enables functional recovery after severe spinal cord contusion

Cortico–reticulo–spinal circuit reorganization enables functional recovery after severe spinal cord contusion, Published online: 19 March 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0093-5

Severe spinal cord contusions interrupt all corticospinal input. Neuroprosthetic rehabilitation rerouted cortical command through residual reticulospinal pathways, mediating motor cortex dependent recovery of locomotion in otherwise paralyzed rats.
Categories: Neuroscience

TDP-43 gains function due to perturbed autoregulation in a <i>Tardbp</i> knock-in mouse model of ALS-FTD

Nature Neuroscience - 19 March 2018 - 12:00am

TDP-43 gains function due to perturbed autoregulation in a Tardbp knock-in mouse model of ALS-FTD

TDP-43 gains function due to perturbed autoregulation in a <i>Tardbp</i> knock-in mouse model of ALS-FTD, Published online: 19 March 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0113-5

TDP-43 gains function due to perturbed autoregulation in a Tardbp knock-in mouse model of ALS-FTD, leading to aberrant Mapt splicing and a paucity of parvalbumin interneurons. Phenotypic heterogeneity is exploited to yield modifiers of disease.
Categories: Neuroscience

Lifelong cortical myelin plasticity and age-related degeneration in the live mammalian brain

Nature Neuroscience - 19 March 2018 - 12:00am

Lifelong cortical myelin plasticity and age-related degeneration in the live mammalian brain

Lifelong cortical myelin plasticity and age-related degeneration in the live mammalian brain, Published online: 19 March 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0120-6

It is unknown if myelination patterns are fixed in adults. Using label-free & fluorescence in vivo imaging, Hill et al show lifelong internode addition to partially myelinated axons, with age-related internode loss & debris accumulation in microglia.
Categories: Neuroscience

Publisher Correction: Whole genome sequencing in psychiatric disorders: the WGSPD consortium

Nature Neuroscience - 16 March 2018 - 12:00am

Publisher Correction: Whole genome sequencing in psychiatric disorders: the WGSPD consortium

Publisher Correction: Whole genome sequencing in psychiatric disorders: the WGSPD consortium, Published online: 16 March 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0102-8

Publisher Correction: Whole genome sequencing in psychiatric disorders: the WGSPD consortium
Categories: Neuroscience

Publisher Correction: Temporally precise single-cell-resolution optogenetics

Nature Neuroscience - 16 March 2018 - 12:00am

Publisher Correction: Temporally precise single-cell-resolution optogenetics

Publisher Correction: Temporally precise single-cell-resolution optogenetics, Published online: 16 March 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0097-1

Publisher Correction: Temporally precise single-cell-resolution optogenetics
Categories: Neuroscience

Publisher Correction: A craniofacial–specific monosynaptic circuit enables heightened affective pain

Nature Neuroscience - 16 March 2018 - 12:00am

Publisher Correction: A craniofacial–specific monosynaptic circuit enables heightened affective pain

Publisher Correction: A craniofacial–specific monosynaptic circuit enables heightened affective pain, Published online: 16 March 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0103-7

Publisher Correction: A craniofacial–specific monosynaptic circuit enables heightened affective pain
Categories: Neuroscience

Pages