Neuroscience

Converging pathways in neurodegeneration, from genetics to mechanisms

Nature Neuroscience - 26 September 2018 - 12:00am

Converging pathways in neurodegeneration, from genetics to mechanisms

Converging pathways in neurodegeneration, from genetics to mechanisms, Published online: 26 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0237-7

Neurodegenerative diseases cause progressive loss of brain functions associated with aging. Here we review intricate genotype–phenotype relationships, shared pathogenic mechanisms, and emerging therapeutic opportunities and challenges.
Categories: Neuroscience

Focus on neurodegenerative disease

Nature Neuroscience - 26 September 2018 - 12:00am

Focus on neurodegenerative disease

Focus on neurodegenerative disease, Published online: 26 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0250-x

Focus on neurodegenerative disease
Categories: Neuroscience

Incidental associations

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 26 September 2018 - 12:00am

Incidental associations

Incidental associations, Published online: 26 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0069-1

Hippocampal cannabinoid 1 receptors are shown to be involved in the formation of incidental associations between pairs of low-salience sensory stimuli, which can then become indirectly associated with certain cues and thus influence behaviour.
Categories: Neuroscience

Protein misfolding, aggregation, and conformational strains in neurodegenerative diseases

Nature Neuroscience - 24 September 2018 - 12:00am

Protein misfolding, aggregation, and conformational strains in neurodegenerative diseases

Protein misfolding, aggregation, and conformational strains in neurodegenerative diseases, Published online: 24 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0235-9

A newly recognized process in neurodegenerative disease is accumulation of misfolded protein aggregates that self-replicate to spread damage between cells and tissues. This process has implications in designing strategies for treatment and diagnosis.
Categories: Neuroscience

The role of brain vasculature in neurodegenerative disorders

Nature Neuroscience - 24 September 2018 - 12:00am

The role of brain vasculature in neurodegenerative disorders

The role of brain vasculature in neurodegenerative disorders, Published online: 24 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0234-x

Adequate blood supply and vascular integrity are key to normal brain functioning. Cerebral blood flow and blood–brain barrier disruption contribute to Alzheimer’s disease and other neurodegenerative disorders as reviewed in humans and animal models.
Categories: Neuroscience

Animal models of neurodegenerative diseases

Nature Neuroscience - 24 September 2018 - 12:00am

Animal models of neurodegenerative diseases

Animal models of neurodegenerative diseases, Published online: 24 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0236-8

The authors review the current state of rodent models for AD, PD, FTD, and ALS. Limitations and utility of current models, issues regarding translatability, and future directions for developing animal models of these human disorders are discussed.
Categories: Neuroscience

Selective vulnerability in neurodegenerative diseases

Nature Neuroscience - 24 September 2018 - 12:00am

Selective vulnerability in neurodegenerative diseases

Selective vulnerability in neurodegenerative diseases, Published online: 24 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0221-2

Neurodegenerative diseases impact specific cell populations within the brain. However, not all cells within the population are impacted, a phenomenon called selective cellular vulnerability. The molecular basis of this vulnerability is discussed.
Categories: Neuroscience

Impaired perceptual learning in a mouse model of Fragile X syndrome is mediated by parvalbumin neuron dysfunction and is reversible

Nature Neuroscience - 24 September 2018 - 12:00am

Impaired perceptual learning in a mouse model of Fragile X syndrome is mediated by parvalbumin neuron dysfunction and is reversible

Impaired perceptual learning in a mouse model of Fragile X syndrome is mediated by parvalbumin neuron dysfunction and is reversible, Published online: 24 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0231-0

Goel et al found similar deficits in visual discrimination in humans and in a mouse model of FXS. In mice, a robust decrease in PV cell activity mediated this impairment, suggesting that manipulating inhibition may improve sensory processing in FXS.
Categories: Neuroscience

Deconstructing the synapse

Nature Neuroscience - 24 September 2018 - 12:00am

Deconstructing the synapse

Deconstructing the synapse, Published online: 24 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0244-8

While the role of protein synthesis in synaptic plasticity and memory is well-established, protein degradation processes have been less studied. A seminal 2003 Nature Neuroscience paper showed that ubiquitin-dependent degradation of synaptic proteins is engaged during activity-regulated synaptic remodeling.
Categories: Neuroscience

Restoring wild-type-like CA1 network dynamics and behavior during adulthood in a mouse model of schizophrenia

Nature Neuroscience - 17 September 2018 - 12:00am

Restoring wild-type-like CA1 network dynamics and behavior during adulthood in a mouse model of schizophrenia

Restoring wild-type-like CA1 network dynamics and behavior during adulthood in a mouse model of schizophrenia, Published online: 17 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0225-y

The authors report that impaired hippocampal synchrony in a mouse model of schizophrenia is due to parvalbumin interneuron hypoexcitability. Rescuing interneuron excitability during adulthood restores wild-type-like network dynamics and behavior.
Categories: Neuroscience

Enhancers active in dopamine neurons are a primary link between genetic variation and neuropsychiatric disease

Nature Neuroscience - 17 September 2018 - 12:00am

Enhancers active in dopamine neurons are a primary link between genetic variation and neuropsychiatric disease

Enhancers active in dopamine neurons are a primary link between genetic variation and neuropsychiatric disease, Published online: 17 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0223-0

The BRAINcode consortium found that tens of thousands of transcribed noncoding elements (TNEs) from the ‘dark matter’ of our genome are active in dopamine neurons. They may be linked to schizophrenia, Parkinson’s disease, and addiction.
Categories: Neuroscience

Social reward monitoring and valuation in the macaque brain

Nature Neuroscience - 17 September 2018 - 12:00am

Social reward monitoring and valuation in the macaque brain

Social reward monitoring and valuation in the macaque brain, Published online: 17 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0229-7

Applying a social Pavlovian conditioning procedure for macaques, this study shows that medial prefrontal neurons selectively monitor self-reward or other-reward information and that dopamine neurons integrate this information into subjective value.
Categories: Neuroscience

Social subjective value in the primate midbrain

Nature Neuroscience - 17 September 2018 - 12:00am

Social subjective value in the primate midbrain

Social subjective value in the primate midbrain, Published online: 17 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0230-1

How we value our own rewards depends on what others have. A new study shows that neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex selectively monitor the value of rewards received by oneself or by another individual, whereas midbrain dopaminergic neurons integrate these values to generate social subjective reward values.
Categories: Neuroscience

CNS lymphatic drainage and neuroinflammation are regulated by meningeal lymphatic vasculature

Nature Neuroscience - 17 September 2018 - 12:00am

CNS lymphatic drainage and neuroinflammation are regulated by meningeal lymphatic vasculature

CNS lymphatic drainage and neuroinflammation are regulated by meningeal lymphatic vasculature, Published online: 17 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0227-9

Louveau et al. demonstrate that meningeal lymphatics drain CSF-derived macromolecules and immune cells and play a key role in regulating neuroinflammation. Meningeal lymphatics may represent a new therapeutic target for multiple sclerosis.
Categories: Neuroscience

Inhibitory connectivity defines the realm of excitatory plasticity

Nature Neuroscience - 17 September 2018 - 12:00am

Inhibitory connectivity defines the realm of excitatory plasticity

Inhibitory connectivity defines the realm of excitatory plasticity, Published online: 17 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0226-x

Mongillo et al. use theoretical modeling to link structure & activity in a cortical network. They find that activity patterns are predominantly controlled by inhibitory connections, making the network robust to ongoing changes in excitatory synapses.
Categories: Neuroscience

Neural implementation of Bayesian inference in a sensorimotor behavior

Nature Neuroscience - 17 September 2018 - 12:00am

Neural implementation of Bayesian inference in a sensorimotor behavior

Neural implementation of Bayesian inference in a sensorimotor behavior, Published online: 17 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0233-y

Behavior is the result of a Bayesian computation that weights past experience and current sensory information by their reliabilities. Here single-neuron activity in eye movement cortex exemplifies how the brain implements a Bayesian computation.
Categories: Neuroscience

Coordinated cerebellar climbing fiber activity signals learned sensorimotor predictions

Nature Neuroscience - 17 September 2018 - 12:00am

Coordinated cerebellar climbing fiber activity signals learned sensorimotor predictions

Coordinated cerebellar climbing fiber activity signals learned sensorimotor predictions, Published online: 17 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0228-8

Cerebellar climbing fibers provide predictive, context-specific instructional signals that do not rely exclusively on motor errors to support learning of arbitrary sensorimotor associations.
Categories: Neuroscience

Receptor replacement

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 12 September 2018 - 12:00am

Receptor replacement

Receptor replacement, Published online: 12 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0060-x

Mice receiving autoantibodies against the GluA2 AMPA receptor subunit from individuals with autoimmune encephalitis exhibit changes in AMPA receptor subunit composition and impaired synaptic plasticity and memory.
Categories: Neuroscience

Catching waves

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 11 September 2018 - 12:00am

Catching waves

Catching waves, Published online: 11 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0062-8

Catching waves
Categories: Neuroscience

Untangling tau structure

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 11 September 2018 - 12:00am

Untangling tau structure

Untangling tau structure, Published online: 11 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0063-7

Untangling tau structure
Categories: Neuroscience

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