Neuroscience

Synaptic <i>N</i><sup>6</sup>-methyladenosine (m<sup>6</sup>A) epitranscriptome reveals functional partitioning of localized transcripts

Nature Neuroscience - 27 June 2018 - 12:00am

Synaptic N6-methyladenosine (m6A) epitranscriptome reveals functional partitioning of localized transcripts

Synaptic <i>N</i><sup>6</sup>-methyladenosine (m<sup>6</sup>A) epitranscriptome reveals functional partitioning of localized transcripts, Published online: 27 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0173-6

A localized set of mRNA at the synapse facilitates synapse formation and plasticity. The authors show an enrichment of N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modifications of these mRNA at the synapse and link m6A recognition by molecular readers to synaptic function.
Categories: Neuroscience

Sleep it off

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 26 June 2018 - 12:00am

Sleep it off

Sleep it off, Published online: 26 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0037-9

A set of 80 (mostly synaptic) proteins show hyperphosphorylation in sleep-deprived mice and genetically ‘sleepy’ mice, suggesting that increased phosphorylation of such proteins may be associated with sleep need.
Categories: Neuroscience

Neuroscience of apathy and anhedonia: a transdiagnostic approach

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 26 June 2018 - 12:00am

Neuroscience of apathy and anhedonia: a transdiagnostic approach

Neuroscience of apathy and anhedonia: a transdiagnostic approach, Published online: 26 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0029-9

Anhedonia and apathy are syndromes affecting motivation and have been reported in various neurological and psychiatric disorders. Husain and Roiser examine the neural mechanisms underlying apathy and anhedonia within a transdiagnostic framework of effort-based decision making for reward.
Categories: Neuroscience

Author Correction: Microglial immune checkpoint mechanisms

Nature Neuroscience - 25 June 2018 - 12:00am

Author Correction: Microglial immune checkpoint mechanisms

Author Correction: Microglial immune checkpoint mechanisms, Published online: 25 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0186-1

Author Correction: Microglial immune checkpoint mechanisms
Categories: Neuroscience

Stressing the other paraventricular nucleus

Nature Neuroscience - 25 June 2018 - 12:00am

Stressing the other paraventricular nucleus

Stressing the other paraventricular nucleus, Published online: 25 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0178-1

Often overlooked, the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus is a stress-sensitive region in the midline thalamus essential for stress-induced adaptations. Using cutting edge in vivo monitoring approaches, Beas, Wright et al. identify a circuit by which stress disinhibits the midline thalamus through dopaminergic modulation arising from the locus coeruleus.
Categories: Neuroscience

The mysterious origins of microglia

Nature Neuroscience - 25 June 2018 - 12:00am

The mysterious origins of microglia

The mysterious origins of microglia, Published online: 25 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0176-3

The origin of microglia, the resident macrophage population of the CNS, has been a long-standing matter of debate. Here we discuss two seminal studies published in 2007 in Nature Neuroscience that significantly contributed to a better understanding of microglia ontogeny and homeostasis in the adult brain.
Categories: Neuroscience

Investigating large-scale brain dynamics using field potential recordings: analysis and interpretation

Nature Neuroscience - 25 June 2018 - 12:00am

Investigating large-scale brain dynamics using field potential recordings: analysis and interpretation

Investigating large-scale brain dynamics using field potential recordings: analysis and interpretation, Published online: 25 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0171-8

This article presents best practices on how field potential recordings (EEG, MEG, ECoG and LFP) can be analyzed to identify large-scale brain dynamics, and highlights issues and limitations of interpretation.
Categories: Neuroscience

Losing sleep over lipids

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 22 June 2018 - 12:00am

Losing sleep over lipids

Losing sleep over lipids, Published online: 22 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0033-0

In genetic fly models of Parkinson disease, disrupted lipid trafficking in neuropeptidergic neurons leads to circadian disruption.
Categories: Neuroscience

Generation of circadian rhythms in the suprachiasmatic nucleus

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 22 June 2018 - 12:00am

Generation of circadian rhythms in the suprachiasmatic nucleus

Generation of circadian rhythms in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, Published online: 22 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0026-z

In mammals, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus acts as the principal pacemaker for circadian rhythms, which are powerful regulators of physiology and behaviour. In this Review, Hastings, Maywood and Brancaccio examine the molecular, cellular and circuit mechanisms underlying time-keeping in the SCN.
Categories: Neuroscience

Trading places

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 22 June 2018 - 12:00am

Trading places

Trading places, Published online: 22 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0032-1

Insights into the molecular and cellular mechanisms by which the APOE4 variant increases risk for Alzheimer disease are gained by comparing transcriptomes of neurons, astrocytes and microglia derived from isogenic APOE3- and APOE4-carrying iPSC cell lines.
Categories: Neuroscience

Opioid receptors: drivers to addiction?

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 22 June 2018 - 12:00am

Opioid receptors: drivers to addiction?

Opioid receptors: drivers to addiction?, Published online: 22 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0028-x

The opioid system is central to addiction. Darcq and Kieffer review the role of these receptors in the addiction neurocircuitry, ask whether opioid receptors can be targeted to kill pain without addiction and discuss studies that bridge the translational gap in the field.
Categories: Neuroscience

Influencing identity

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 21 June 2018 - 12:00am

Influencing identity

Influencing identity, Published online: 21 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0036-x

Influencing identity
Categories: Neuroscience

Expanding knowledge

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 21 June 2018 - 12:00am

Expanding knowledge

Expanding knowledge, Published online: 21 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0034-z

Expanding knowledge
Categories: Neuroscience

A matter of taste

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 21 June 2018 - 12:00am

A matter of taste

A matter of taste, Published online: 21 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0035-y

A matter of taste
Categories: Neuroscience

The locus coeruleus drives disinhibition in the midline thalamus via a dopaminergic mechanism

Nature Neuroscience - 18 June 2018 - 12:00am

The locus coeruleus drives disinhibition in the midline thalamus via a dopaminergic mechanism

The locus coeruleus drives disinhibition in the midline thalamus via a dopaminergic mechanism, Published online: 18 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0167-4

Beas et al. show that stress exposure drives disinhibition of PVT projection neurons. This process involves an LC-mediated rise in extracellular DA in the midline thalamus, requires D2 receptors on PVT neurons, and increases stress sensitivity.
Categories: Neuroscience

Optimization of interneuron function by direct coupling of cell migration and axonal targeting

Nature Neuroscience - 18 June 2018 - 12:00am

Optimization of interneuron function by direct coupling of cell migration and axonal targeting

Optimization of interneuron function by direct coupling of cell migration and axonal targeting, Published online: 18 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0162-9

Circuit assembly relies on several developmental processes that are often considered independently. Lim and colleagues now reveal that cell migration and axon targeting may be mechanistically linked for Martinotti cells during cortical development.
Categories: Neuroscience

Publisher Correction: Inhibitory circuit gating of auditory critical-period plasticity

Nature Neuroscience - 18 June 2018 - 12:00am

Publisher Correction: Inhibitory circuit gating of auditory critical-period plasticity

Publisher Correction: Inhibitory circuit gating of auditory critical-period plasticity, Published online: 18 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0161-x

Publisher Correction: Inhibitory circuit gating of auditory critical-period plasticity
Categories: Neuroscience

A novel pyramidal cell type promotes sharp-wave synchronization in the hippocampus

Nature Neuroscience - 18 June 2018 - 12:00am

A novel pyramidal cell type promotes sharp-wave synchronization in the hippocampus

A novel pyramidal cell type promotes sharp-wave synchronization in the hippocampus, Published online: 18 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0172-7

The authors identify a CA3 new pyramidal cell type with unique morphofunctional characteristics and distinct synaptic inputs and describe how these cells contribute to sharp-wave synchronization events, which are vital to hippocampal memory function.
Categories: Neuroscience

Direct pericyte-to-neuron reprogramming via unfolding of a neural stem cell-like program

Nature Neuroscience - 18 June 2018 - 12:00am

Direct pericyte-to-neuron reprogramming via unfolding of a neural stem cell-like program

Direct pericyte-to-neuron reprogramming via unfolding of a neural stem cell-like program, Published online: 18 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0168-3

Ascl1 and Sox2 convert human brain pericytes into the two major neuronal subclasses of GABA- and glutamatergic neurons. Unexpectedly, despite the lack of cell division, this conversion requires passage through a neural stem cell-like state.
Categories: Neuroscience

Thalamic dual control of sleep and wakefulness

Nature Neuroscience - 11 June 2018 - 12:00am

Thalamic dual control of sleep and wakefulness

Thalamic dual control of sleep and wakefulness, Published online: 11 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0164-7

This study shows that tonic firing of centromedial thalamic neurons triggers rapid arousal, whereas burst firing triggers brain-wide propagating cortical slow waves and promotes sleep recovery, indicative of a midline thalamus sleep–wake hub.
Categories: Neuroscience

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