Neuroscience

Panoptic imaging of transparent mice reveals whole-body neuronal projections and skull–meninges connections

Nature Neuroscience - 31 December 2018 - 12:00am

Panoptic imaging of transparent mice reveals whole-body neuronal projections and skull–meninges connections

Panoptic imaging of transparent mice reveals whole-body neuronal projections and skull–meninges connections, Published online: 31 December 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0301-3

A nanobody-based immunolabeling method, vDISCO, boosts the signal of fluorescent proteins and allows imaging of subcellular details in intact transparent mice. It uncovers neuronal projections and skull–meninges connections in whole adult mice.
Categories: Neuroscience

Too hungry to sleep

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 20 December 2018 - 12:00am

Too hungry to sleep

Too hungry to sleep, Published online: 20 December 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0116-y

Too hungry to sleep
Categories: Neuroscience

Exploring phylogeny to find the function of sleep

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 20 December 2018 - 12:00am

Exploring phylogeny to find the function of sleep

Exploring phylogeny to find the function of sleep, Published online: 20 December 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0098-9

The core function of sleep remains unclear. In this Opinion, Anafi, Kayser and Raizen give an overview of sleep states in various phyla and propose that the original function of sleep was likely metabolic.
Categories: Neuroscience

Publisher Correction: Motor primitives in space and time via targeted gain modulation in cortical networks

Nature Neuroscience - 19 December 2018 - 12:00am

Publisher Correction: Motor primitives in space and time via targeted gain modulation in cortical networks

Publisher Correction: Motor primitives in space and time via targeted gain modulation in cortical networks, Published online: 19 December 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0307-x

Publisher Correction: Motor primitives in space and time via targeted gain modulation in cortical networks
Categories: Neuroscience

TDP-43 extracted from frontotemporal lobar degeneration subject brains displays distinct aggregate assemblies and neurotoxic effects reflecting disease progression rates

Nature Neuroscience - 17 December 2018 - 12:00am

TDP-43 extracted from frontotemporal lobar degeneration subject brains displays distinct aggregate assemblies and neurotoxic effects reflecting disease progression rates

TDP-43 extracted from frontotemporal lobar degeneration subject brains displays distinct aggregate assemblies and neurotoxic effects reflecting disease progression rates, Published online: 17 December 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0294-y

Using a newly developed biochemical method for aggregated protein extraction, Laferrière and colleagues uncover different neurotoxic types of pathologic TDP-43 assemblies in the brains of subjects with distinct subtypes of frontotemporal dementia.
Categories: Neuroscience

Efficient coding of subjective value

Nature Neuroscience - 17 December 2018 - 12:00am

Efficient coding of subjective value

Efficient coding of subjective value, Published online: 17 December 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0292-0

Polanía et al. show that, similarly to sensory signals, subjective preferences guiding choice are represented by the brain in a manner that accounts for regularities of the environment, thereby optimizing use of limited neural processing resources.
Categories: Neuroscience

A tau homeostasis signature is linked with the cellular and regional vulnerability of excitatory neurons to tau pathology

Nature Neuroscience - 17 December 2018 - 12:00am

A tau homeostasis signature is linked with the cellular and regional vulnerability of excitatory neurons to tau pathology

A tau homeostasis signature is linked with the cellular and regional vulnerability of excitatory neurons to tau pathology, Published online: 17 December 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0298-7

Neuron types vulnerable to tau accumulation (excitatory neurons) in AD brain are intrinsically less able to maintain tau homeostasis than neuron types that are resistant (inhibitory neurons).
Categories: Neuroscience

Invasion of white matter tracts by glioma stem cells is regulated by a <i>NOTCH1</i>–<i>SOX2</i> positive-feedback loop

Nature Neuroscience - 17 December 2018 - 12:00am

Invasion of white matter tracts by glioma stem cells is regulated by a NOTCH1SOX2 positive-feedback loop

Invasion of white matter tracts by glioma stem cells is regulated by a <i>NOTCH1</i>–<i>SOX2</i> positive-feedback loop, Published online: 17 December 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0285-z

CD133 and Notch1 double-positive GSCs were preferentially located along Jagged1-expressing white matter tracts, which exhibited a demyelinated phenotype. The NOTCH1–SOX9–SOX2 positive-feedback loop controls GSC invasion along white matter tracts.
Categories: Neuroscience

Locus coeruleus activation enhances thalamic feature selectivity via norepinephrine regulation of intrathalamic circuit dynamics

Nature Neuroscience - 17 December 2018 - 12:00am

Locus coeruleus activation enhances thalamic feature selectivity via norepinephrine regulation of intrathalamic circuit dynamics

Locus coeruleus activation enhances thalamic feature selectivity via norepinephrine regulation of intrathalamic circuit dynamics, Published online: 17 December 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0283-1

Locus coeruleus (LC) activation enhanced thalamic feature selectivity & perceptual performance. Electrophysiology and modeling suggest this improvement is due to reduction in Ca2+ T-channel activity by LC regulation of intrathalamic circuit dynamics.
Categories: Neuroscience

Tau impairs neural circuits, dominating amyloid-β effects, in Alzheimer models in vivo

Nature Neuroscience - 17 December 2018 - 12:00am

Tau impairs neural circuits, dominating amyloid-β effects, in Alzheimer models in vivo

Tau impairs neural circuits, dominating amyloid-β effects, in Alzheimer models in vivo, Published online: 17 December 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0289-8

Microscopic imaging of neurons in mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease shows that plaques increase activity while neurofibrillary tangles suppress activity. The combination of plaques and tangles, as in humans with Alzheimer’s disease, suppresses activity.
Categories: Neuroscience

Human microglia regional heterogeneity and phenotypes determined by multiplexed single-cell mass cytometry

Nature Neuroscience - 17 December 2018 - 12:00am

Human microglia regional heterogeneity and phenotypes determined by multiplexed single-cell mass cytometry

Human microglia regional heterogeneity and phenotypes determined by multiplexed single-cell mass cytometry, Published online: 17 December 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0290-2

Single-cell mass cytometry was applied to comprehensively characterize postmortem and fresh human microglia. Using a hybrid workflow for multidimensional data analysis, a core signature and regional heterogeneity were identified.
Categories: Neuroscience

TDP-43 shapeshifts to encipher FTD severity

Nature Neuroscience - 17 December 2018 - 12:00am

TDP-43 shapeshifts to encipher FTD severity

TDP-43 shapeshifts to encipher FTD severity, Published online: 17 December 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0299-6

TDP-43 forms cytoplasmic aggregates in degenerating neurons of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) patients. Laferrière et al. now establish that TDP-43 assemblies from distinct FTD subtypes have different structures, neurotoxicities, and seeding activities, which correlate with FTD severity. Thus, distinct pathological TDP-43 assemblies akin to prion strains might underpin distinct FTD subtypes.
Categories: Neuroscience

Circadian blueprint of metabolic pathways in the brain

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 17 December 2018 - 12:00am

Circadian blueprint of metabolic pathways in the brain

Circadian blueprint of metabolic pathways in the brain, Published online: 17 December 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0096-y

In addition to the central pacemaker, the mammalian brain contains additional circadian clocks. In this Review, Greco and Sassone–Corsi discuss how systemic homeostasis relies on the coordinated communication between these clocks.
Categories: Neuroscience

Portraits of communication in neuronal networks

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 14 December 2018 - 12:00am

Portraits of communication in neuronal networks

Portraits of communication in neuronal networks, Published online: 14 December 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0094-0

In this Opinion article, Hahn, Kumar and colleagues propose that synchrony- and oscillation-based communication between brain networks can be described by a common theoretical framework. They also suggest a mechanism for control of the flow of information in the brain through nesting of slow and fast oscillations.
Categories: Neuroscience

Disarming the guards of change

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 14 December 2018 - 12:00am

Disarming the guards of change

Disarming the guards of change, Published online: 14 December 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0114-0

Repetitive sensory input induces long-term potentiation of pyramidal cell synapses in mouse somatosensory cortex by activation of higher-order thalamic projections and disinhibition of local interneurons.
Categories: Neuroscience

Author Correction: Epigenetic regulation in psychiatric disorders

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 13 December 2018 - 12:00am

Author Correction: Epigenetic regulation in psychiatric disorders

Author Correction: Epigenetic regulation in psychiatric disorders, Published online: 13 December 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0089-x

Author Correction: Epigenetic regulation in psychiatric disorders
Categories: Neuroscience

The neurobiological basis of narcolepsy

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 13 December 2018 - 12:00am

The neurobiological basis of narcolepsy

The neurobiological basis of narcolepsy, Published online: 13 December 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0097-x

Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder caused by selective loss of orexin-producing neurons. Scammell and colleagues describe the functions of orexin neurons and the effects of their loss and review evidence implicating the immune system in the pathogenesis of the disorder.
Categories: Neuroscience

Role of astrocytes, microglia, and tanycytes in brain control of systemic metabolism

Nature Neuroscience - 10 December 2018 - 12:00am

Role of astrocytes, microglia, and tanycytes in brain control of systemic metabolism

Role of astrocytes, microglia, and tanycytes in brain control of systemic metabolism, Published online: 10 December 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0286-y

Knowledge of the role of glial–neuronal interactions in the physiology of food intake and energy metabolism is emerging. This review highlights the role of astrocytes, microglia, and tanycytes in central control of systemic metabolism.
Categories: Neuroscience

Stimulus- and goal-oriented frameworks for understanding natural vision

Nature Neuroscience - 10 December 2018 - 12:00am

Stimulus- and goal-oriented frameworks for understanding natural vision

Stimulus- and goal-oriented frameworks for understanding natural vision, Published online: 10 December 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0284-0

A satisfactory understanding of how natural stimuli are encoded by neural circuits has remained elusive. Advances in machine learning provide new approaches to this problem by merging constraints imposed by stimulus statistics and behavioral goals.
Categories: Neuroscience

When remembering is rewarding

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 6 December 2018 - 12:00am

When remembering is rewarding

When remembering is rewarding, Published online: 06 December 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0110-4

In mice, long-term potentiation of hippocampal–nucleus accumbens synapses is required for the formation of reward-related memories.
Categories: Neuroscience

Pages