Neuroscience

Planning a path

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 11 September 2018 - 12:00am

Planning a path

Planning a path, Published online: 11 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0061-9

Planning a path
Categories: Neuroscience

Microglial signatures and their role in health and disease

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 11 September 2018 - 12:00am

Microglial signatures and their role in health and disease

Microglial signatures and their role in health and disease, Published online: 11 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0057-5

Technological advances have allowed the molecular ‘signatures’ of microglia to be characterized, providing insight into their roles in CNS function. Weiner and Butovsky discuss the plasticity of these signatures in health and disease and consider the mechanisms underlying their establishment, maintenance and regulation.
Categories: Neuroscience

Novel inhibition

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 11 September 2018 - 12:00am

Novel inhibition

Novel inhibition, Published online: 11 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0064-6

Novel inhibition
Categories: Neuroscience

Inflammasome signalling in brain function and neurodegenerative disease

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 11 September 2018 - 12:00am

Inflammasome signalling in brain function and neurodegenerative disease

Inflammasome signalling in brain function and neurodegenerative disease, Published online: 11 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0055-7

Inflammasomes are pro-inflammatory protein complexes that become activated in a range of neurodegenerative conditions. In this review, Heneka and colleagues discuss recent findings that provide fresh insights on the role of inflammasomes across cell types and disease states in the brain.
Categories: Neuroscience

Rodent models for Alzheimer disease

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 7 September 2018 - 12:00am

Rodent models for Alzheimer disease

Rodent models for Alzheimer disease, Published online: 07 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0054-8

Rodent models are extensively used to investigate the pathophysiology of Alzheimer disease. In this Review, Götz, Bodea and Goedert critically examine the approaches that have been adopted to generate rodent Alzheimer disease models and touch on some of the lessons that have been learned from their use.
Categories: Neuroscience

Dopamine neurons projecting to the posterior striatum reinforce avoidance of threatening stimuli

Nature Neuroscience - 3 September 2018 - 12:00am

Dopamine neurons projecting to the posterior striatum reinforce avoidance of threatening stimuli

Dopamine neurons projecting to the posterior striatum reinforce avoidance of threatening stimuli, Published online: 03 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0222-1

Menegas et al. show that dopamine neurons projecting to the posterior striatum reinforce avoidance of threatening stimuli. Their results indicate that there are two axes of reinforcement learning using dopamine, the value axis and the threat axis.
Categories: Neuroscience

Multiple sclerosis and cognition: synaptic failure and network dysfunction

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 29 August 2018 - 12:00am

Multiple sclerosis and cognition: synaptic failure and network dysfunction

Multiple sclerosis and cognition: synaptic failure and network dysfunction, Published online: 29 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0053-9

Cognitive impairment is a key feature of multiple sclerosis (MS). Di Filippo and colleagues provide an overview of the cognitive domains and brain regions that are affected in MS, with a focus on potential hippocampal mechanisms underlying learning and memory deficits in this disease.
Categories: Neuroscience

Extracting new insights from bulk transcriptomics

Nature Neuroscience - 28 August 2018 - 12:00am

Extracting new insights from bulk transcriptomics

Extracting new insights from bulk transcriptomics, Published online: 28 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0218-x

The surge in single-cell and single-nucleus RNA-sequencing has raised the question of the value of bulk tissue transcriptomics. Kelley et al. describe an analysis framework by which existing bulk transcriptomic data can be reanalyzed using cell-type-specific data to yield insights into cell-type variation across brain regions and diseases.
Categories: Neuroscience

Variation among intact tissue samples reveals the core transcriptional features of human CNS cell classes

Nature Neuroscience - 28 August 2018 - 12:00am

Variation among intact tissue samples reveals the core transcriptional features of human CNS cell classes

Variation among intact tissue samples reveals the core transcriptional features of human CNS cell classes, Published online: 28 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0216-z

The authors use integrative deconvolution of gene expression data to reveal core transcriptional features of CNS cell classes in humans, and identify cell-class-specific transcriptional differences in disease, among CNS regions, and between species.
Categories: Neuroscience

Concentrating on the claustrum

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 28 August 2018 - 12:00am

Concentrating on the claustrum

Concentrating on the claustrum, Published online: 28 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0056-6

Two studies show that the claustrum delivers inhibition to different parts of the cortex — the prefrontal cortex and auditory cortex.
Categories: Neuroscience

GWAS of lifetime cannabis use reveals new risk loci, genetic overlap with psychiatric traits, and a causal influence of schizophrenia

Nature Neuroscience - 27 August 2018 - 12:00am

GWAS of lifetime cannabis use reveals new risk loci, genetic overlap with psychiatric traits, and a causal influence of schizophrenia

GWAS of lifetime cannabis use reveals new risk loci, genetic overlap with psychiatric traits, and a causal influence of schizophrenia, Published online: 27 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0206-1

A GWAS of lifetime cannabis use reveals new risk loci, shows that cannabis use has genetic overlap with smoking and alcohol use, and indicates that the likelihood of initiating cannabis use is causally influenced by schizophrenia.
Categories: Neuroscience

Direct vascular channels connect skull bone marrow and the brain surface enabling myeloid cell migration

Nature Neuroscience - 27 August 2018 - 12:00am

Direct vascular channels connect skull bone marrow and the brain surface enabling myeloid cell migration

Direct vascular channels connect skull bone marrow and the brain surface enabling myeloid cell migration, Published online: 27 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0213-2

The authors describe microscopic channels that directly connect the skull marrow cavities with the meninges. Neutrophils originating from the skull marrow have a higher propensity to travel to the ischemic mouse brain than cells in the tibia.
Categories: Neuroscience

Transcriptomic and morphophysiological evidence for a specialized human cortical GABAergic cell type

Nature Neuroscience - 27 August 2018 - 12:00am

Transcriptomic and morphophysiological evidence for a specialized human cortical GABAergic cell type

Transcriptomic and morphophysiological evidence for a specialized human cortical GABAergic cell type, Published online: 27 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0205-2

The authors use single-nucleus RNA-seq to identify 10 GABAergic interneuron subtypes in human cortex layer 1. Molecular, morphological, and physiological evidence points to an emerging human cell type, the rosehip cell, not found in other species.
Categories: Neuroscience

Cognitive computational neuroscience

Nature Neuroscience - 20 August 2018 - 12:00am

Cognitive computational neuroscience

Cognitive computational neuroscience, Published online: 20 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0210-5

The authors review recent work at the intersection of cognitive science, computational neuroscience and artificial intelligence that develops and tests computational models mimicking neural and cognitive function during a wide range of tasks.
Categories: Neuroscience

DeepLabCut: markerless pose estimation of user-defined body parts with deep learning

Nature Neuroscience - 20 August 2018 - 12:00am

DeepLabCut: markerless pose estimation of user-defined body parts with deep learning

DeepLabCut: markerless pose estimation of user-defined body parts with deep learning, Published online: 20 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0209-y

Using a deep learning approach to track user-defined body parts during various behaviors across multiple species, the authors show that their toolbox, called DeepLabCut, can achieve human accuracy with only a few hundred frames of training data.
Categories: Neuroscience

In vivo measurement of afferent activity with axon-specific calcium imaging

Nature Neuroscience - 20 August 2018 - 12:00am

In vivo measurement of afferent activity with axon-specific calcium imaging

In vivo measurement of afferent activity with axon-specific calcium imaging, Published online: 20 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0211-4

The authors introduce a variant GCaMP that is targeted to axons. Due to its strong brightness, signal-to-noise ratio, and photostability, this tool, named axon-GCaMP, enables robust Ca2+ imaging in individual axons, including in vivo in awake mice.
Categories: Neuroscience

Outsmarting (and outrunning) nature’s harsh decree

Nature Neuroscience - 20 August 2018 - 12:00am

Outsmarting (and outrunning) nature’s harsh decree

Outsmarting (and outrunning) nature’s harsh decree, Published online: 20 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0214-1

Twenty years ago, 2 studies showed that behavioral experience affects proliferation & survival of newborn neurons in adult hippocampus, suggesting adult neurogenesis as a form of experience-dependent neuroplasticity relevant to memory, emotion, & mental health.
Categories: Neuroscience

Mononuclear phagocytes locally specify and adapt their phenotype in a multiple sclerosis model

Nature Neuroscience - 20 August 2018 - 12:00am

Mononuclear phagocytes locally specify and adapt their phenotype in a multiple sclerosis model

Mononuclear phagocytes locally specify and adapt their phenotype in a multiple sclerosis model, Published online: 20 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0212-3

Phagocytes drive formation & resolution of neuroinflammatory lesions. The authors use in vivo imaging to track expression of proinflammatory & resolution enzymes & follow temporal changes in individual phagocytes polarization states in inflamed CNS.
Categories: Neuroscience

Sex bias in autism: new insights from <i>Chd8</i> mutant mice?

Nature Neuroscience - 20 August 2018 - 12:00am

Sex bias in autism: new insights from Chd8 mutant mice?

Sex bias in autism: new insights from <i>Chd8</i> mutant mice?, Published online: 20 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0217-y

A study has found that young male mice with a mutation of the autism-associated gene Chd8 show abnormal behaviors and elevated neuronal activation in several brain areas under stressful conditions, while female mice with the same mutation have reduced baseline neuronal activity, which may protect them from developing these abnormal phenotypes.
Categories: Neuroscience

Publisher Correction: Attention improves memory by suppressing spiking-neuron activity in the human anterior temporal lobe

Nature Neuroscience - 20 August 2018 - 12:00am

Publisher Correction: Attention improves memory by suppressing spiking-neuron activity in the human anterior temporal lobe

Publisher Correction: Attention improves memory by suppressing spiking-neuron activity in the human anterior temporal lobe, Published online: 20 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0224-z

Publisher Correction: Attention improves memory by suppressing spiking-neuron activity in the human anterior temporal lobe
Categories: Neuroscience

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