Neuroscience

Gene expression: Key codes

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 8 March 2018 - 12:00am

Gene expression: Key codes

Gene expression: Key codes, Published online: 08 March 2018; doi:10.1038/nrn.2018.24

Gene expression: Key codes
Categories: Neuroscience

Cell biology of the neuron: Untangling the ubiquitin–proteasome system

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 8 March 2018 - 12:00am

Cell biology of the neuron: Untangling the ubiquitin–proteasome system

Cell biology of the neuron: Untangling the ubiquitin–proteasome system, Published online: 08 March 2018; doi:10.1038/nrn.2018.26

Cell biology of the neuron: Untangling the ubiquitin–proteasome system
Categories: Neuroscience

Neuronal plasticity: Upscale, downscale

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 8 March 2018 - 12:00am

Neuronal plasticity: Upscale, downscale

Neuronal plasticity: Upscale, downscale, Published online: 08 March 2018; doi:10.1038/nrn.2018.30

Neurons exhibiting synaptic upscaling or downscaling in response to decreases or increases in activity, respectively, show changes in protein expression that depend on the duration and the polarity of the change.
Categories: Neuroscience

Lactate in the brain: from metabolic end-product to signalling molecule

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 8 March 2018 - 12:00am

Lactate in the brain: from metabolic end-product to signalling molecule

Lactate in the brain: from metabolic end-product to signalling molecule, Published online: 08 March 2018; doi:10.1038/nrn.2018.19

Much research has shown that lactate produced by astrocytes serves as a neuronal energy substrate. In this Review, Magistretti and Allaman describe this model as well as recent evidence that lactate also modulates neuronal properties, including excitability and plasticity, thus helping to set the 'homeostatic tone' of the nervous system.
Categories: Neuroscience

Spatial processing: Directional dilemmas

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 8 March 2018 - 12:00am

Spatial processing: Directional dilemmas

Spatial processing: Directional dilemmas, Published online: 08 March 2018; doi:10.1038/nrn.2018.25

Spatial processing: Directional dilemmas
Categories: Neuroscience

Sleep: Ever-decreasing ripples

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 8 March 2018 - 12:00am

Sleep: Ever-decreasing ripples

Sleep: Ever-decreasing ripples, Published online: 08 March 2018; doi:10.1038/nrn.2018.27

Sleep: Ever-decreasing ripples
Categories: Neuroscience

Neurodevelopmental disorders: A targeted rescue

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 8 March 2018 - 12:00am

Neurodevelopmental disorders: A targeted rescue

Neurodevelopmental disorders: A targeted rescue, Published online: 08 March 2018; doi:10.1038/nrn.2018.29

Study employs DNA methylation editing to reactivate FMR1 expression and reverse phenotypic deficits in cells derived from individuals with fragile X syndrome.
Categories: Neuroscience

Publisher Correction: Medial preoptic circuit induces hunting-like actions to target objects and prey

Nature Neuroscience - 7 March 2018 - 12:00am

Publisher Correction: Medial preoptic circuit induces hunting-like actions to target objects and prey

Publisher Correction: Medial preoptic circuit induces hunting-like actions to target objects and prey, Published online: 07 March 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0115-3

Publisher Correction: Medial preoptic circuit induces hunting-like actions to target objects and prey
Categories: Neuroscience

Cortical specialization for attended versus unattended working memory

Nature Neuroscience - 5 March 2018 - 12:00am

Cortical specialization for attended versus unattended working memory

Cortical specialization for attended versus unattended working memory, Published online: 05 March 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0094-4

Whether we currently pay attention to memory items matters for their neural representation. Unattended items are stored exclusively in activity of higher-level brain areas, whereas attended items are also represented in low-level sensory regions.
Categories: Neuroscience

Promises and limitations of human intracranial electroencephalography

Nature Neuroscience - 5 March 2018 - 12:00am

Promises and limitations of human intracranial electroencephalography

Promises and limitations of human intracranial electroencephalography, Published online: 05 March 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0108-2

The authors argue that intracranial EEG recordings in humans add unique information beyond invasive recordings in animal models and noninvasive human research, including anatomically precise dynamics and network interactions of neuronal populations.
Categories: Neuroscience

Developmentally primed cortical neurons maintain fidelity of differentiation and establish appropriate functional connectivity after transplantation

Nature Neuroscience - 5 March 2018 - 12:00am

Developmentally primed cortical neurons maintain fidelity of differentiation and establish appropriate functional connectivity after transplantation

Developmentally primed cortical neurons maintain fidelity of differentiation and establish appropriate functional connectivity after transplantation, Published online: 05 March 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0098-0

This work demonstrates subtype-specific molecular fidelity, laminar positioning, long-distance interhemisheric connectivity and electrophysiologic circuit integration by developmentally primed, microtransplanted neurons in postnatal mouse neocortex.
Categories: Neuroscience

B-1a lymphocytes promote oligodendrogenesis during brain development

Nature Neuroscience - 5 March 2018 - 12:00am

B-1a lymphocytes promote oligodendrogenesis during brain development

B-1a lymphocytes promote oligodendrogenesis during brain development, Published online: 05 March 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0106-4

The authors investigate the involvement of lymphocytes in brain development and find that B-1a cells, a subtype of B cells, promoted oligodendrogenesis by secreting IgM. Neutralizing the receptor for IgM reduced myelination in neonatal mouse brains.
Categories: Neuroscience

Dysregulation of the epigenetic landscape of normal aging in Alzheimer’s disease

Nature Neuroscience - 5 March 2018 - 12:00am

Dysregulation of the epigenetic landscape of normal aging in Alzheimer’s disease

Dysregulation of the epigenetic landscape of normal aging in Alzheimer’s disease, Published online: 05 March 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0101-9

By comparing the genome-wide profile of H4K16ac in AD with younger and elder controls, the authors propose a mechanism for how age is a risk factor for AD: a histone modification, whose accumulation is associated with aging, is dysregulated in AD.
Categories: Neuroscience

A three-dimensional single-cell-resolution whole-brain atlas using CUBIC-X expansion microscopy and tissue clearing

Nature Neuroscience - 5 March 2018 - 12:00am

A three-dimensional single-cell-resolution whole-brain atlas using CUBIC-X expansion microscopy and tissue clearing

A three-dimensional single-cell-resolution whole-brain atlas using CUBIC-X expansion microscopy and tissue clearing, Published online: 05 March 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0109-1

The authors developed a CUBIC tissue clearing and expansion method to generate an editable, point-based single-cell-resolution brain atlas. This atlas, termed CUBIC-Atlas, can be used for unbiased systems-level cellular analysis in whole mouse brain.
Categories: Neuroscience

Single-cell mass cytometry reveals distinct populations of brain myeloid cells in mouse neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration models

Nature Neuroscience - 5 March 2018 - 12:00am

Single-cell mass cytometry reveals distinct populations of brain myeloid cells in mouse neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration models

Single-cell mass cytometry reveals distinct populations of brain myeloid cells in mouse neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration models, Published online: 05 March 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0100-x

Myeloid cells are critical in the pathology of inflammatory and degenerative brain diseases. The authors use single-cell mass cytometry (CyTOF) to reveal distinct characteristics in these cells in models of neural inflammation and degeneration.
Categories: Neuroscience

Nontoxic, double-deletion-mutant rabies viral vectors for retrograde targeting of projection neurons

Nature Neuroscience - 5 March 2018 - 12:00am

Nontoxic, double-deletion-mutant rabies viral vectors for retrograde targeting of projection neurons

Nontoxic, double-deletion-mutant rabies viral vectors for retrograde targeting of projection neurons, Published online: 05 March 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0091-7

Rabies viral vectors are important tools in neuroscience, but their cytotoxicity usually limits their use. Chatterjee et al. introduce a new class of double-deletion-mutant rabies viral vectors that leaves neurons alive and healthy indefinitely.
Categories: Neuroscience

Author Correction: Single-nucleus analysis of accessible chromatin in developing mouse forebrain reveals cell-type-specific transcriptional regulation

Nature Neuroscience - 1 March 2018 - 12:00am

Author Correction: Single-nucleus analysis of accessible chromatin in developing mouse forebrain reveals cell-type-specific transcriptional regulation

Author Correction: Single-nucleus analysis of accessible chromatin in developing mouse forebrain reveals cell-type-specific transcriptional regulation, Published online: 01 March 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0114-4

Author Correction: Single-nucleus analysis of accessible chromatin in developing mouse forebrain reveals cell-type-specific transcriptional regulation
Categories: Neuroscience

Depression: Bursting with depression

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 1 March 2018 - 12:00am

Depression: Bursting with depression

Depression: Bursting with depression, Published online: 01 March 2018; doi:10.1038/nrn.2018.28

Upregulated bursting activity in the lateral habenula is associated with depression-like behaviours in rats and mice, and depends on NMDA receptors, T-type voltage-sensitive calcium channels and the astrocytic inwardly rectifying potassium channel KIR4.1.
Categories: Neuroscience

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