Neuroscience

Attention improves memory by suppressing spiking-neuron activity in the human anterior temporal lobe

Nature Neuroscience - 21 May 2018 - 12:00am

Attention improves memory by suppressing spiking-neuron activity in the human anterior temporal lobe

Attention improves memory by suppressing spiking-neuron activity in the human anterior temporal lobe, Published online: 21 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0148-7

Wittig et al. show that attention in the service of verbal memory triggers a preparatory suppression of neural activity in the human anterior temporal lobe, suggesting that this region is a novel and unexpected source of attentional control.
Categories: Neuroscience

mTORC2, but not mTORC1, is required for hippocampal mGluR-LTD and associated behaviors

Nature Neuroscience - 21 May 2018 - 12:00am

mTORC2, but not mTORC1, is required for hippocampal mGluR-LTD and associated behaviors

mTORC2, but not mTORC1, is required for hippocampal mGluR-LTD and associated behaviors, Published online: 21 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0156-7

mTORC1 was posited as required for hippocampal mGluR-LTD at CA1 synapses based on its pharmacological inhibition with rapamycin. Using molecular genetics, the authors show that mTORC2 but not mTORC1 is required for mGluR-LTD and associated behaviors.
Categories: Neuroscience

Distinct learning-induced changes in stimulus selectivity and interactions of GABAergic interneuron classes in visual cortex

Nature Neuroscience - 21 May 2018 - 12:00am

Distinct learning-induced changes in stimulus selectivity and interactions of GABAergic interneuron classes in visual cortex

Distinct learning-induced changes in stimulus selectivity and interactions of GABAergic interneuron classes in visual cortex, Published online: 21 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0143-z

Khan et al. simultaneously measured activity from excitatory cells and three classes of inhibitory interneurons in visual cortex and show that learning differentially shapes the stimulus selectivity and interactions of multiple cell classes.
Categories: Neuroscience

Beyond the maternal epigenetic legacy

Nature Neuroscience - 21 May 2018 - 12:00am

Beyond the maternal epigenetic legacy

Beyond the maternal epigenetic legacy, Published online: 21 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0157-6

In 2004, Weaver et al. published evidence in Nature Neuroscience for the lasting epigenetic impact of maternal care within the hippocampus of rat offspring. This conceptual and methodological leap contributed to the evolution of environmental and behavioral epigenetics and continues to inspire challenging questions about genes, environments, and their legacy.
Categories: Neuroscience

Chronic CRH depletion from GABAergic, long-range projection neurons in the extended amygdala reduces dopamine release and increases anxiety

Nature Neuroscience - 21 May 2018 - 12:00am

Chronic CRH depletion from GABAergic, long-range projection neurons in the extended amygdala reduces dopamine release and increases anxiety

Chronic CRH depletion from GABAergic, long-range projection neurons in the extended amygdala reduces dopamine release and increases anxiety, Published online: 21 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0151-z

The neuropeptide CRH is believed to induce aversive, stress-like behavioral responses. Here the authors describe a distinct population of CRH neurons in the extended amygdala that act to suppress anxiety by positively modulating dopamine release.
Categories: Neuroscience

A glial blueprint for gliomagenesis

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 18 May 2018 - 12:00am

A glial blueprint for gliomagenesis

A glial blueprint for gliomagenesis, Published online: 18 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0014-3

Gliomas represent the most deadly of human brain tumours; however, little progress has been made towards their successful treatment. In this Review, Deneen and colleagues discuss how glioma tumorigenesis resembles glial development and how this may inform novel therapies.
Categories: Neuroscience

Synaptic building blocks

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 17 May 2018 - 12:00am

Synaptic building blocks

Synaptic building blocks, Published online: 17 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0018-z

New findings demonstrate the coordinated regulation of aligned clusters of presynaptic and postsynaptic proteins in dendritic structural plasticity.
Categories: Neuroscience

Transition to chronic pain: opportunities for novel therapeutics

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 15 May 2018 - 12:00am

Transition to chronic pain: opportunities for novel therapeutics

Transition to chronic pain: opportunities for novel therapeutics, Published online: 15 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0012-5

Although chronic pain is one of the most important medical problems facing society, there has been very limited progress in the development of novel therapies for this condition. Here, we discuss high-impact research priorities to reduce the number of people transitioning from acute to chronic intractable pain.
Categories: Neuroscience

Author Correction: Effects of adolescent alcohol consumption on the brain and behaviour

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 15 May 2018 - 12:00am

Author Correction: Effects of adolescent alcohol consumption on the brain and behaviour

Author Correction: Effects of adolescent alcohol consumption on the brain and behaviour, Published online: 15 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0007-2

Author Correction: Effects of adolescent alcohol consumption on the brain and behaviour
Categories: Neuroscience

What does dopamine mean?

Nature Neuroscience - 14 May 2018 - 12:00am

What does dopamine mean?

What does dopamine mean?, Published online: 14 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0152-y

What does dopamine mean?
Categories: Neuroscience

Two distinct mechanisms for experience-dependent homeostasis

Nature Neuroscience - 14 May 2018 - 12:00am

Two distinct mechanisms for experience-dependent homeostasis

Two distinct mechanisms for experience-dependent homeostasis, Published online: 14 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0150-0

The authors revise the classical view that homeostasis of neuronal activity is achieved by negative firing rate feedback: during sensory deprivation, homeostasis occurs via the sliding threshold, which acts via firing patterns rather than rates.
Categories: Neuroscience

Synaptic homeostasis: quality vs. quantity

Nature Neuroscience - 14 May 2018 - 12:00am

Synaptic homeostasis: quality vs. quantity

Synaptic homeostasis: quality vs. quantity, Published online: 14 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0159-4

Synaptic connections adapt homeostatically to changes in experience to maintain optimal circuit function. A study demonstrates that different forms of synaptic homeostasis respond to distinct aspects of circuit activity, suggesting that neurons can gauge and adapt to the both the quality and quantity of circuit activity.
Categories: Neuroscience

Prefrontal cortex as a meta-reinforcement learning system

Nature Neuroscience - 14 May 2018 - 12:00am

Prefrontal cortex as a meta-reinforcement learning system

Prefrontal cortex as a meta-reinforcement learning system, Published online: 14 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0147-8

Humans and other mammals are prodigious learners, partly because they also ‘learn how to learn’. Wang and colleagues present a new theory showing how learning to learn may arise from interactions between prefrontal cortex and the dopamine system.
Categories: Neuroscience

Publisher Correction: Genome-wide association study of delay discounting in 23,217 adult research participants of European ancestry

Nature Neuroscience - 11 May 2018 - 12:00am

Publisher Correction: Genome-wide association study of delay discounting in 23,217 adult research participants of European ancestry

Publisher Correction: Genome-wide association study of delay discounting in 23,217 adult research participants of European ancestry, Published online: 11 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0117-1

Publisher Correction: Genome-wide association study of delay discounting in 23,217 adult research participants of European ancestry
Categories: Neuroscience

Author Correction: Stay alert, don’t get hurt

Nature Neuroscience - 11 May 2018 - 12:00am

Author Correction: Stay alert, don’t get hurt

Author Correction: Stay alert, don’t get hurt, Published online: 11 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0111-7

Author Correction: Stay alert, don’t get hurt
Categories: Neuroscience

Publisher Correction: Single-cell analysis of experience-dependent transcriptomic states in the mouse visual cortex

Nature Neuroscience - 11 May 2018 - 12:00am

Publisher Correction: Single-cell analysis of experience-dependent transcriptomic states in the mouse visual cortex

Publisher Correction: Single-cell analysis of experience-dependent transcriptomic states in the mouse visual cortex, Published online: 11 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0112-6

Publisher Correction: Single-cell analysis of experience-dependent transcriptomic states in the mouse visual cortex
Categories: Neuroscience

Publisher Correction: The C-terminal tails of endogenous GluA1 and GluA2 differentially contribute to hippocampal synaptic plasticity and learning

Nature Neuroscience - 11 May 2018 - 12:00am

Publisher Correction: The C-terminal tails of endogenous GluA1 and GluA2 differentially contribute to hippocampal synaptic plasticity and learning

Publisher Correction: The C-terminal tails of endogenous GluA1 and GluA2 differentially contribute to hippocampal synaptic plasticity and learning, Published online: 11 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0116-2

Publisher Correction: The C-terminal tails of endogenous GluA1 and GluA2 differentially contribute to hippocampal synaptic plasticity and learning
Categories: Neuroscience

Foraging for foundations in decision neuroscience: insights from ethology

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 11 May 2018 - 12:00am

Foraging for foundations in decision neuroscience: insights from ethology

Foraging for foundations in decision neuroscience: insights from ethology, Published online: 11 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0010-7

In this Opinion article, Mobbs and colleagues argue that more should be done to combine the approaches taken in neuroscience with those taken in ethology and behavioural ecology to study decision-making. They illustrate how this has been achieved in the context of studies on foraging.
Categories: Neuroscience

A regional divide

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 9 May 2018 - 12:00am

A regional divide

A regional divide, Published online: 09 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0015-2

Two molecularly and functionally distinct populations of pyramidal cells in the hippocampal subiculum are characterized
Categories: Neuroscience

Creating a diversion

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 9 May 2018 - 12:00am

Creating a diversion

Creating a diversion, Published online: 09 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0016-1

Elevated maternal IL-6 in the maternal circulation can enter the fetus via the maternal—placental—fetal route and alter neurodevelopmental processes, with potentially wide-ranging effects on brain function later in life.
Categories: Neuroscience

Pages