Neuroscience

Publisher Correction: Does Predictive coding have a future?

Nature Neuroscience - 22 November 2018 - 12:00am

Publisher Correction: Does Predictive coding have a future?

Publisher Correction: Does Predictive coding have a future?, Published online: 22 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0272-4

Publisher Correction: Does Predictive coding have a future?
Categories: Neuroscience

Necroptosis and RIPK1-mediated neuroinflammation in CNS diseases

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 22 November 2018 - 12:00am

Necroptosis and RIPK1-mediated neuroinflammation in CNS diseases

Necroptosis and RIPK1-mediated neuroinflammation in CNS diseases, Published online: 22 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0093-1

Necroptosis is a form of cell death mediated by receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1), and is observed in several CNS disorders. Here, Yuan, Amin and Ofengeim give an overview of necroptosis in the CNS and explain its relationship with inflammation in CNS disorders.
Categories: Neuroscience

Mitochondria as central regulators of neural stem cell fate and cognitive function

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 21 November 2018 - 12:00am

Mitochondria as central regulators of neural stem cell fate and cognitive function

Mitochondria as central regulators of neural stem cell fate and cognitive function, Published online: 21 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0091-3

Neural stem and progenitor cells can be regulated through mitochondrial signalling mechanisms and this has major implications in physiological and pathological conditions. In this Review, Khacho and colleagues discuss how mitochondria can serve as signalling organelles that modify the fate of stem cells in the brain.
Categories: Neuroscience

Rhythms of life: circadian disruption and brain disorders across the lifespan

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 20 November 2018 - 12:00am

Rhythms of life: circadian disruption and brain disorders across the lifespan

Rhythms of life: circadian disruption and brain disorders across the lifespan, Published online: 20 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0088-y

Many neurobiological processes are regulated on a circadian basis. Circadian rhythms change during development, into adulthood and with ageing, when certain disorders typically emerge. Here, Logan and McClung give an overview of the relationship between the circadian system and brain disorders across various life stages.
Categories: Neuroscience

Haploinsufficiency of the intellectual disability gene <i>SETD5</i> disturbs developmental gene expression and cognition

Nature Neuroscience - 19 November 2018 - 12:00am

Haploinsufficiency of the intellectual disability gene SETD5 disturbs developmental gene expression and cognition

Haploinsufficiency of the intellectual disability gene <i>SETD5</i> disturbs developmental gene expression and cognition, Published online: 19 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0266-2

Mutations in SETD5 are a frequent cause of intellectual disability and autism. Deliu et al. describe that deletion of one mouse Setd5 allele leads to a disruption of the transcriptional program associated with development and learning.
Categories: Neuroscience

Thalamic regulation of switching between cortical representations enables cognitive flexibility

Nature Neuroscience - 19 November 2018 - 12:00am

Thalamic regulation of switching between cortical representations enables cognitive flexibility

Thalamic regulation of switching between cortical representations enables cognitive flexibility, Published online: 19 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0269-z

Rikhye et al. recorded prefrontal and thalamic populations from mice performing attention selection across different contexts. By encoding context, the thalamus both enhances and suppresses prefrontal representations in a context-appropriate manner.
Categories: Neuroscience

Regulation of cell-type-specific transcriptomes by microRNA networks during human brain development

Nature Neuroscience - 19 November 2018 - 12:00am

Regulation of cell-type-specific transcriptomes by microRNA networks during human brain development

Regulation of cell-type-specific transcriptomes by microRNA networks during human brain development, Published online: 19 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0265-3

Highly dynamic miRNA networks mediate developmental transitions during human brain development. Single-cell networks were detected by combining single-cell miRNA and mRNA profiling with HITS-CLIP analyzed with bipartite and co-expression networks.
Categories: Neuroscience

<i>SYNGAP1</i> heterozygosity disrupts sensory processing by reducing touch-related activity within somatosensory cortex circuits

Nature Neuroscience - 19 November 2018 - 12:00am

SYNGAP1 heterozygosity disrupts sensory processing by reducing touch-related activity within somatosensory cortex circuits

<i>SYNGAP1</i> heterozygosity disrupts sensory processing by reducing touch-related activity within somatosensory cortex circuits, Published online: 19 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0268-0

Michaelson et al. report that human SYNGAP1 variation alters touch-related sensory processing. Studies in Syngap1 mice revealed circuit-specific impairments in the somatosensory cortex that underlie reduced cortical activation in response to touch.
Categories: Neuroscience

Characterization of human mosaic Rett syndrome brain tissue by single-nucleus RNA sequencing

Nature Neuroscience - 19 November 2018 - 12:00am

Characterization of human mosaic Rett syndrome brain tissue by single-nucleus RNA sequencing

Characterization of human mosaic Rett syndrome brain tissue by single-nucleus RNA sequencing, Published online: 19 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0270-6

The authors develop a single-cell RNA-seq approach to distinguish cells expressing wild-type or mutant genes in mosaic individuals with X-linked disorders and find that cell-type-specific DNA methylation predicts gene misregulation in Rett syndrome.
Categories: Neuroscience

Author Correction: Impaired perceptual learning in a mouse model of Fragile X syndrome is mediated by parvalbumin neuron dysfunction and is reversible

Nature Neuroscience - 15 November 2018 - 12:00am

Author Correction: Impaired perceptual learning in a mouse model of Fragile X syndrome is mediated by parvalbumin neuron dysfunction and is reversible

Author Correction: Impaired perceptual learning in a mouse model of Fragile X syndrome is mediated by parvalbumin neuron dysfunction and is reversible, Published online: 15 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0273-3

Author Correction: Impaired perceptual learning in a mouse model of Fragile X syndrome is mediated by parvalbumin neuron dysfunction and is reversible
Categories: Neuroscience

Neuronal stability in medial frontal cortex sets individual variability in decision-making

Nature Neuroscience - 12 November 2018 - 12:00am

Neuronal stability in medial frontal cortex sets individual variability in decision-making

Neuronal stability in medial frontal cortex sets individual variability in decision-making, Published online: 12 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0263-5

Behavioral responses vary considerably across individuals. Kurikawa et al. show experimentally and computationally how the observed spectrum of individual variances in decision-making emerges from neural dynamics of the medial frontal cortex.
Categories: Neuroscience

Same lesson, varied choices by frontal cortex

Nature Neuroscience - 12 November 2018 - 12:00am

Same lesson, varied choices by frontal cortex

Same lesson, varied choices by frontal cortex, Published online: 12 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0282-2

In an unfamiliar situation, animals display variable choice behavior. Based on computational modeling and empirical data, a new study suggests that the variability in decision-making across individuals is driven by differences in internal neural dynamics in the medial frontal cortex.
Categories: Neuroscience

Nonsense-mediated RNA decay in the brain: emerging modulator of neural development and disease

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 8 November 2018 - 12:00am

Nonsense-mediated RNA decay in the brain: emerging modulator of neural development and disease

Nonsense-mediated RNA decay in the brain: emerging modulator of neural development and disease, Published online: 08 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0079-z

Nonsense-mediated RNA decay — a highly selective and conserved RNA turnover pathway — is shown to have roles in both brain development and function. In this Review, Jaffrey and Wilkinson discuss how this pathway affects the nervous system.
Categories: Neuroscience

Publisher Correction: Maladaptive cortical hyperactivity upon recovery from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

Nature Neuroscience - 7 November 2018 - 12:00am

Publisher Correction: Maladaptive cortical hyperactivity upon recovery from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

Publisher Correction: Maladaptive cortical hyperactivity upon recovery from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, Published online: 07 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0274-2

Publisher Correction: Maladaptive cortical hyperactivity upon recovery from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis
Categories: Neuroscience

Publisher Correction: Maintenance, reserve and compensation: the cognitive neuroscience of healthy ageing

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 7 November 2018 - 12:00am

Publisher Correction: Maintenance, reserve and compensation: the cognitive neuroscience of healthy ageing

Publisher Correction: Maintenance, reserve and compensation: the cognitive neuroscience of healthy ageing, Published online: 07 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0087-z

Publisher Correction: Maintenance, reserve and compensation: the cognitive neuroscience of healthy ageing
Categories: Neuroscience

Stop, don’t prune me!

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 7 November 2018 - 12:00am

Stop, don’t prune me!

Stop, don’t prune me!, Published online: 07 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0090-4

A study shows that during brain development in mice, CD47 prevents excessive synaptic pruning by microglia.
Categories: Neuroscience

Author Correction: Maintenance, reserve and compensation: the cognitive neuroscience of healthy ageing

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 7 November 2018 - 12:00am

Author Correction: Maintenance, reserve and compensation: the cognitive neuroscience of healthy ageing

Author Correction: Maintenance, reserve and compensation: the cognitive neuroscience of healthy ageing, Published online: 07 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0086-0

Author Correction: Maintenance, reserve and compensation: the cognitive neuroscience of healthy ageing
Categories: Neuroscience

Versatile control of synaptic circuits by astrocytes: where, when and how?

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 6 November 2018 - 12:00am

Versatile control of synaptic circuits by astrocytes: where, when and how?

Versatile control of synaptic circuits by astrocytes: where, when and how?, Published online: 06 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0080-6

Astrocytes display widespread functional diversity that translates into distinct regulation of synaptic circuits. In this Review, Dallérac and colleagues discuss the determinants of these divergent regulations throughout life focusing on astroglial intrinsic heterogeneity, developmental changes and activity-dependent processes.
Categories: Neuroscience

Partial loss of psychiatric risk gene <i>Mir137</i> in mice causes repetitive behavior and impairs sociability and learning via increased Pde10a

Nature Neuroscience - 5 November 2018 - 12:00am

Partial loss of psychiatric risk gene Mir137 in mice causes repetitive behavior and impairs sociability and learning via increased Pde10a

Partial loss of psychiatric risk gene <i>Mir137</i> in mice causes repetitive behavior and impairs sociability and learning via increased Pde10a, Published online: 05 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0261-7

Partial loss of psychiatric risk gene Mir137 in mice causes repetitive behavior and impairs sociability and learning via increased Pde10a.
Categories: Neuroscience

Towards a neuroscience of active sampling and curiosity

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 5 November 2018 - 12:00am

Towards a neuroscience of active sampling and curiosity

Towards a neuroscience of active sampling and curiosity, Published online: 05 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0078-0

Animals may adopt an active-sampling strategy to assess their environment. In this Review, Jacqueline Gottlieb and Pierre-Yves Oudeyer explore the emerging neuroscientific literature examining active sampling and how it relates to attention and curiosity.
Categories: Neuroscience

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