Neuroscience

A giant step for spinal cord injury research

Nature Neuroscience - 31 October 2018 - 12:00am

A giant step for spinal cord injury research

A giant step for spinal cord injury research, Published online: 31 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0264-4

The combination of spinal epidural stimulation and physical therapy is restoring walking function to people with spinal cord injury. With intensive rehabilitation, some participants are able to walk in their communities during stimulation and even regain control over previously paralyzed movement in the absence of stimulation.
Categories: Neuroscience

Electrical spinal cord stimulation must preserve proprioception to enable locomotion in humans with spinal cord injury

Nature Neuroscience - 31 October 2018 - 12:00am

Electrical spinal cord stimulation must preserve proprioception to enable locomotion in humans with spinal cord injury

Electrical spinal cord stimulation must preserve proprioception to enable locomotion in humans with spinal cord injury, Published online: 31 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0262-6

Electrical spinal cord stimulation interferes with natural proprioceptive information in humans. Ecological stimulation protocols that preserve limb position awareness and proprioceptive circuit dynamics facilitate walking after spinal cord injury.
Categories: Neuroscience

Keep breathing

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 29 October 2018 - 12:00am

Keep breathing

Keep breathing, Published online: 29 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0085-1

A population of spinal excitatory interneurons can be targeted for the maintenance of respiratory function after spinal cord injury in mice.
Categories: Neuroscience

A corticopontine circuit for initiation of urination

Nature Neuroscience - 25 October 2018 - 12:00am

A corticopontine circuit for initiation of urination

A corticopontine circuit for initiation of urination, Published online: 25 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0256-4

A small cluster of brainstem-projecting layer 5 neurons in primary motor cortex elicit contraction of the bladder muscle and trigger urination. These findings open new directions for treating urination-related disorders.
Categories: Neuroscience

Let it go: central neural control of urination

Nature Neuroscience - 25 October 2018 - 12:00am

Let it go: central neural control of urination

Let it go: central neural control of urination, Published online: 25 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0259-1

Two recent studies have expanded our understanding of the circuits controlling urination: one described a projection from brainstem to spinal cord that relaxes the urethral sphincter, and the other revealed a subpopulation of brainstem-projecting layer 5 pyramidal neurons in primary motor cortex that direct the initiation of urination.
Categories: Neuroscience

Fission’ for LTP

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 25 October 2018 - 12:00am

Fission’ for LTP

Fission’ for LTP, Published online: 25 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0081-5

Dendritic mitochondria in stimulated neurons undergo fission that is required for long-term potentiation.
Categories: Neuroscience

The hippocampal sharp wave–ripple in memory retrieval for immediate use and consolidation

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 24 October 2018 - 12:00am

The hippocampal sharp wave–ripple in memory retrieval for immediate use and consolidation

The hippocampal sharp wave–ripple in memory retrieval for immediate use and consolidation, Published online: 24 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0077-1

Sharp wave–ripples (SWRs) are specific neural activity patterns in the hippocampus that are thought to support memory. In this Review, Hannah Joo and Loren Frank explore where and when SWRs are generated and propose a revised view of the role of these activity patterns in memory functions.
Categories: Neuroscience

Hexagonal pathfinding

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 23 October 2018 - 12:00am

Hexagonal pathfinding

Hexagonal pathfinding, Published online: 23 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0084-2

Hexagonal pathfinding
Categories: Neuroscience

Distributed network interactions and their emergence in developing neocortex

Nature Neuroscience - 22 October 2018 - 12:00am

Distributed network interactions and their emergence in developing neocortex

Distributed network interactions and their emergence in developing neocortex, Published online: 22 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0247-5

Distributed networks in visual cortex precisely link the fine-scale functional architecture with distant network elements and appear early in development, when heterogeneous local connections may seed long-range network interactions.
Categories: Neuroscience

Active dendritic integration and mixed neocortical network representations during an adaptive sensing behavior

Nature Neuroscience - 22 October 2018 - 12:00am

Active dendritic integration and mixed neocortical network representations during an adaptive sensing behavior

Active dendritic integration and mixed neocortical network representations during an adaptive sensing behavior, Published online: 22 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0254-6

The authors investigated the neocortical representations that mediate sensory–motor transformations in active sensing behavior. Layer 5 of vibrissae cortex generates a diverse, distributed network representation via active dendritic integration.
Categories: Neuroscience

Somatic mosaicism and neurodevelopmental disease

Nature Neuroscience - 22 October 2018 - 12:00am

Somatic mosaicism and neurodevelopmental disease

Somatic mosaicism and neurodevelopmental disease, Published online: 22 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0257-3

Somatic mutations occur after fertilization and are present in only some cells of an individual. Somatic mutations contribute to normal and abnormal brain development, including neurodevelopmental disorders like autism spectrum disorder.
Categories: Neuroscience

Prioritized memory access explains planning and hippocampal replay

Nature Neuroscience - 22 October 2018 - 12:00am

Prioritized memory access explains planning and hippocampal replay

Prioritized memory access explains planning and hippocampal replay, Published online: 22 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0232-z

Mattar and Daw propose a normative theory predicting which memories should be accessed at each moment to optimize future decisions. This theory offers a simple explanation for numerous findings about hippocampal replay, bridging planning and learning.
Categories: Neuroscience

Evidence for a subcircuit in medial entorhinal cortex representing elapsed time during immobility

Nature Neuroscience - 22 October 2018 - 12:00am

Evidence for a subcircuit in medial entorhinal cortex representing elapsed time during immobility

Evidence for a subcircuit in medial entorhinal cortex representing elapsed time during immobility, Published online: 22 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0252-8

Imaging during a virtual ‘Door Stop’ task shows that medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) represents elapsed time in immobile mice, suggesting there are largely distinct MEC subcircuits that encode either time during immobility or space during locomotion.
Categories: Neuroscience

A central amygdala to zona incerta projection is required for acquisition and remote recall of conditioned fear memory

Nature Neuroscience - 22 October 2018 - 12:00am

A central amygdala to zona incerta projection is required for acquisition and remote recall of conditioned fear memory

A central amygdala to zona incerta projection is required for acquisition and remote recall of conditioned fear memory, Published online: 22 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0248-4

Using genetic tools of neural circuit tracing and manipulation, we identify a novel projection from the amygdala to the zona incerta—a nucleus not previously implicated in fear memory—that is essential for recent and remote fear memories.
Categories: Neuroscience

Natural image and receptive field statistics predict saccade sizes

Nature Neuroscience - 22 October 2018 - 12:00am

Natural image and receptive field statistics predict saccade sizes

Natural image and receptive field statistics predict saccade sizes, Published online: 22 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0255-5

Saccadic eye movements during free viewing exhibit patterns that reflect a strategy to increase neural responses by matching motor behavior with the statistics of the natural world and with the processing limitations of sensory systems.
Categories: Neuroscience

Are we of two minds?

Nature Neuroscience - 22 October 2018 - 12:00am

Are we of two minds?

Are we of two minds?, Published online: 22 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0258-2

What you choose depends on what information your brain considers and what it neglects when computing the value of actions. An early theory used this insight for a computational account of habits versus deliberation. It has ultimately helped uncover how choice in the brain goes beyond such simple dichotomies.
Categories: Neuroscience

CA2 bursting

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 22 October 2018 - 12:00am

CA2 bursting

CA2 bursting, Published online: 22 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0082-4

CA2 bursting
Categories: Neuroscience

Boosting regeneration

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 22 October 2018 - 12:00am

Boosting regeneration

Boosting regeneration, Published online: 22 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0083-3

Boosting regeneration
Categories: Neuroscience

The timing of action determines reward prediction signals in identified midbrain dopamine neurons

Nature Neuroscience - 15 October 2018 - 12:00am

The timing of action determines reward prediction signals in identified midbrain dopamine neurons

The timing of action determines reward prediction signals in identified midbrain dopamine neurons, Published online: 15 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0245-7

As naive mice learn a stimulus–reward association, DA neuron activity first reflects the timing of reward-seeking actions relative to predictable stimuli & rewards. As actions are refined by learning, DA neuron activity can reflect prediction errors.
Categories: Neuroscience

Volitional social interaction prevents drug addiction in rat models

Nature Neuroscience - 15 October 2018 - 12:00am

Volitional social interaction prevents drug addiction in rat models

Volitional social interaction prevents drug addiction in rat models, Published online: 15 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0246-6

Venniro et al. report that drug-addicted rats reliably choose contact with another rat over drugs, even when group-housed between tests. They also do not show the increase in drug craving that normally occurs during forced abstinence.
Categories: Neuroscience

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