Neuroscience

An expanding role

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 8 May 2018 - 12:00am

An expanding role

An expanding role, Published online: 08 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0017-0

A new study suggests an evolutionary mechanism — involving abnormal spindle-like microcephaly-associated protein — that, in part, underlies cerebral cortical expansion.
Categories: Neuroscience

Breathing matters

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 8 May 2018 - 12:00am

Breathing matters

Breathing matters, Published online: 08 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0003-6

Breathing is a crucial yet surprisingly complex behaviour. Del Negro, Funk and Feldman describe the neural mechanisms underlying different phases of the breathing cycle, and how breathing affects, and is affected by, emotion, cognition and other behaviours.
Categories: Neuroscience

Rett syndrome: insights into genetic, molecular and circuit mechanisms

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 8 May 2018 - 12:00am

Rett syndrome: insights into genetic, molecular and circuit mechanisms

Rett syndrome: insights into genetic, molecular and circuit mechanisms, Published online: 08 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0006-3

The neurodevelopmental disorder Rett syndrome is caused by a deficiency in methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2). Ip, Mellios and Sur describe the many functions of MeCP2 and the effects of MeCP2 loss on gene expression, excitation–inhibition balance and activity-dependent plasticity.
Categories: Neuroscience

The power of 3′ UTRs

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 8 May 2018 - 12:00am

The power of 3′ UTRs

The power of 3′ UTRs, Published online: 08 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0011-6

Neurons comprise several different compartments — for example, dendrites and soma — and mRNA transcripts can be targeted to various neuronal compartments to facilitate efficient local translation. Information encoded in the 3′ untranslated region (3′ UTR) of mRNA transcripts may affect such mRNA localization, as well as transcript stability and translation. In a new study, Tushev et al. examine the 3′ UTRs of mRNA transcripts in different neuronal compartments and report new insights about the importance of these sequences in localization, translation, stability and plasticity.
Categories: Neuroscience

Microglial immune checkpoint mechanisms

Nature Neuroscience - 7 May 2018 - 12:00am

Microglial immune checkpoint mechanisms

Microglial immune checkpoint mechanisms, Published online: 07 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0145-x

Microglial immune checkpoint mechanisms are signaling pathways that limit immune responsiveness and promote homeostatic activities of micrroglia throughout life, but can interfere with repair mechanisms in disease.
Categories: Neuroscience

Synaptic nibbling

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 1 May 2018 - 12:00am

Synaptic nibbling

Synaptic nibbling, Published online: 01 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0008-1

Synaptic nibbling
Categories: Neuroscience

Pathways to contextual control

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 1 May 2018 - 12:00am

Pathways to contextual control

Pathways to contextual control, Published online: 01 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0009-0

Pathways to contextual control
Categories: Neuroscience

Precise multimodal optical control of neural ensemble activity

Nature Neuroscience - 30 April 2018 - 12:00am

Precise multimodal optical control of neural ensemble activity

Precise multimodal optical control of neural ensemble activity, Published online: 30 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0139-8

The authors present a new approach to create and edit custom spatiotemporal neural activity patterns in awake, behaving animals with extremely high spatial and temporal precision. They present novel opsins optimized for multiphoton optogenetics.
Categories: Neuroscience

Complex formation between the vasopressin 1b receptor, β-arrestin-2, and the μ-opioid receptor underlies morphine tolerance

Nature Neuroscience - 30 April 2018 - 12:00am

Complex formation between the vasopressin 1b receptor, β-arrestin-2, and the μ-opioid receptor underlies morphine tolerance

Complex formation between the vasopressin 1b receptor, β-arrestin-2, and the μ-opioid receptor underlies morphine tolerance, Published online: 30 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0144-y

Chronic morphine use can lead to tolerance and AC superactivation. This paper identifies a molecular mechanism by which V1bR signaling promotes this process, providing a potential approach to enhance morphine analgesia without increasing tolerance.
Categories: Neuroscience

Author Correction: L1-associated genomic regions are deleted in somatic cells of the healthy human brain

Nature Neuroscience - 27 April 2018 - 12:00am

Author Correction: L1-associated genomic regions are deleted in somatic cells of the healthy human brain

Author Correction: L1-associated genomic regions are deleted in somatic cells of the healthy human brain, Published online: 27 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0131-3

Author Correction: L1-associated genomic regions are deleted in somatic cells of the healthy human brain
Categories: Neuroscience

Author Correction: The hippocampus as a predictive map

Nature Neuroscience - 25 April 2018 - 12:00am

Author Correction: The hippocampus as a predictive map

Author Correction: The hippocampus as a predictive map, Published online: 25 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0133-1

Author Correction: The hippocampus as a predictive map
Categories: Neuroscience

Celebrating 20 years of <i>Nature Neuroscience</i>

Nature Neuroscience - 25 April 2018 - 12:00am

Celebrating 20 years of Nature Neuroscience

Celebrating 20 years of <i>Nature Neuroscience</i>, Published online: 25 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0146-9

Our May issue marks Nature Neuroscience’s 20th anniversary. We reflect here on how the journal has evolved and what’s to come.
Categories: Neuroscience

Continued access to investigational brain implants

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 24 April 2018 - 12:00am

Continued access to investigational brain implants

Continued access to investigational brain implants, Published online: 24 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0004-5

Brain implants are being trialled for their potential to ameliorate treatment-resistant conditions or to restore function. However, there are no clear guidelines for continued access to brain implants for trial participants whose symptoms improve with these devices.
Categories: Neuroscience

Neuronal atlas of the dorsal horn defines its architecture and links sensory input to transcriptional cell types

Nature Neuroscience - 23 April 2018 - 12:00am

Neuronal atlas of the dorsal horn defines its architecture and links sensory input to transcriptional cell types

Neuronal atlas of the dorsal horn defines its architecture and links sensory input to transcriptional cell types, Published online: 23 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0141-1

Using single-cell RNA-seq, the authors produced a comprehensive atlas of the somatosensory spinal cord. They found that neuron types build the dorsal horn by a discrete layering and to be differentially engaged by noxious heat and cold.
Categories: Neuroscience

Synaptic nanomodules underlie the organization and plasticity of spine synapses

Nature Neuroscience - 23 April 2018 - 12:00am

Synaptic nanomodules underlie the organization and plasticity of spine synapses

Synaptic nanomodules underlie the organization and plasticity of spine synapses, Published online: 23 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0138-9

Hruska et al. suggest an architectural basis for NMDAR-dependent spine plasticity mediated by addition of unitary pre- and postsynaptic nanomodules that function as building blocks of synaptic organization and enable structural plasticity.
Categories: Neuroscience

Excitatory connections between the prelimbic and infralimbic medial prefrontal cortex show a role for the prelimbic cortex in fear extinction

Nature Neuroscience - 23 April 2018 - 12:00am

Excitatory connections between the prelimbic and infralimbic medial prefrontal cortex show a role for the prelimbic cortex in fear extinction

Excitatory connections between the prelimbic and infralimbic medial prefrontal cortex show a role for the prelimbic cortex in fear extinction, Published online: 23 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0137-x

Prelimbic (PL) and infralimbic (IL) mPFC are thought to mediate fear expression and fear extinction, respectively. The authors show that PL projects to IL and innervates projections to amygdala and that this connection is engaged in fear extinction.
Categories: Neuroscience

Author Correction: Circuit dissection of the role of somatostatin in itch and pain

Nature Neuroscience - 19 April 2018 - 12:00am

Author Correction: Circuit dissection of the role of somatostatin in itch and pain

Author Correction: Circuit dissection of the role of somatostatin in itch and pain, Published online: 19 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0149-6

Author Correction: Circuit dissection of the role of somatostatin in itch and pain
Categories: Neuroscience

Time to get tough

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 18 April 2018 - 12:00am

Time to get tough

Time to get tough, Published online: 18 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0005-4

In mice, aggression is regulated by the circadian suprachiasmatic nucleus through at least two neural pathways.
Categories: Neuroscience

Intrinsic mechanisms of neuronal axon regeneration

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 17 April 2018 - 12:00am

Intrinsic mechanisms of neuronal axon regeneration

Intrinsic mechanisms of neuronal axon regeneration, Published online: 17 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0001-8

Peripheral axon injury initiates a regenerative response that is absent in CNS axons. Mahar and Cavalli describe the mechanisms that initiate and coordinate the programme of transcriptional and epigenetic changes that enable axon regeneration in the peripheral nervous system.
Categories: Neuroscience

Feeding circuit development and early-life influences on future feeding behaviour

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 17 April 2018 - 12:00am

Feeding circuit development and early-life influences on future feeding behaviour

Feeding circuit development and early-life influences on future feeding behaviour, Published online: 17 April 2018; doi:10.1038/nrn.2018.23

The extent and contribution of maternal influence to the developing hypothalamus to later feeding behaviour remain controversial. In this Opinion, Zeltser proposes that crosstalk between developing circuits regulating different modalities of food intake shapes susceptibility to environmental challenges.
Categories: Neuroscience

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