Neuroscience

Parallel circuits from the bed nuclei of stria terminalis to the lateral hypothalamus drive opposing emotional states

Nature Neuroscience - 23 July 2018 - 12:00am

Parallel circuits from the bed nuclei of stria terminalis to the lateral hypothalamus drive opposing emotional states

Parallel circuits from the bed nuclei of stria terminalis to the lateral hypothalamus drive opposing emotional states, Published online: 23 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0198-x

Using genetically encoded physiological tools for monitoring, manipulating, and mapping discrete neural circuits, Giardino et al. characterize 2 discrete amygdala→hypothalamus pathways that promote opposite behavioral responses to emotional stimuli.
Categories: Neuroscience

Principles governing the integration of landmark and self-motion cues in entorhinal cortical codes for navigation

Nature Neuroscience - 23 July 2018 - 12:00am

Principles governing the integration of landmark and self-motion cues in entorhinal cortical codes for navigation

Principles governing the integration of landmark and self-motion cues in entorhinal cortical codes for navigation, Published online: 23 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0189-y

Using a combination of in vivo recording and theoretical modeling, Campbell et al. develop a framework for understanding the integration of self-motion and landmark cues in entorhinal cortex and demonstrate that these principles extend to behavior.
Categories: Neuroscience

Dopamine neurons create Pavlovian conditioned stimuli with circuit-defined motivational properties

Nature Neuroscience - 23 July 2018 - 12:00am

Dopamine neurons create Pavlovian conditioned stimuli with circuit-defined motivational properties

Dopamine neurons create Pavlovian conditioned stimuli with circuit-defined motivational properties, Published online: 23 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0191-4

By pairing cues with brief activation of dopamine neurons in absence of reward, the authors reveal elemental behaviors conditioned by dopamine, showing VTA underlies generation of incentive value and SNc supports conditioned movement invigoration.
Categories: Neuroscience

The diverse culinary habits of microglia

Nature Neuroscience - 23 July 2018 - 12:00am

The diverse culinary habits of microglia

The diverse culinary habits of microglia, Published online: 23 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0196-z

Heterogeneity of function in microglia from different brain regions is suspected but largely unknown. This paper identifies the epigenetic mechanism underlying differential phagocytic activity of microglia in discrete brain regions and examines the consequences of inducing an appetite not commensurate with the level of cell death in the region in which they reside.
Categories: Neuroscience

Cell-specific histone modification maps in the human frontal lobe link schizophrenia risk to the neuronal epigenome

Nature Neuroscience - 23 July 2018 - 12:00am

Cell-specific histone modification maps in the human frontal lobe link schizophrenia risk to the neuronal epigenome

Cell-specific histone modification maps in the human frontal lobe link schizophrenia risk to the neuronal epigenome, Published online: 23 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0187-0

This PsychENCODE resource presents 157 reference maps for open-chromatin-associated histone methylation and acetylation in prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex, linking the neuronal epigenome to the genetic risk architecture of schizophrenia.
Categories: Neuroscience

Pathogenic tau-induced piRNA depletion promotes neuronal death through transposable element dysregulation in neurodegenerative tauopathies

Nature Neuroscience - 23 July 2018 - 12:00am

Pathogenic tau-induced piRNA depletion promotes neuronal death through transposable element dysregulation in neurodegenerative tauopathies

Pathogenic tau-induced piRNA depletion promotes neuronal death through transposable element dysregulation in neurodegenerative tauopathies, Published online: 23 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0194-1

Transposable elements, or ‘jumping genes’, constitute ~45% of the human genome. Sun et. al. report that jumping gene dysregulation is a pharmacologically targetable driver of cell death in neurodegenerative tauopathies, including Alzheimer’s disease.
Categories: Neuroscience

Epigenetic regulation of brain region-specific microglia clearance activity

Nature Neuroscience - 23 July 2018 - 12:00am

Epigenetic regulation of brain region-specific microglia clearance activity

Epigenetic regulation of brain region-specific microglia clearance activity, Published online: 23 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0192-3

Microglia clearance activity in adult brain is regulated epigenetically and region-specifically to match neuronal attrition rates. Uncoupling this activity from neural apoptosis leads to aberrant microglia activation & neurodegenerative-like changes.
Categories: Neuroscience

Author Correction: Transneuronal propagation of mutant huntingtin contributes to non–cell autonomous pathology in neurons

Nature Neuroscience - 17 July 2018 - 12:00am

Author Correction: Transneuronal propagation of mutant huntingtin contributes to non–cell autonomous pathology in neurons

Author Correction: Transneuronal propagation of mutant huntingtin contributes to non–cell autonomous pathology in neurons, Published online: 17 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0201-6

Author Correction: Transneuronal propagation of mutant huntingtin contributes to non–cell autonomous pathology in neurons
Categories: Neuroscience

Author Correction: Dopamine transients are sufficient and necessary for acquisition of model-based associations

Nature Neuroscience - 17 July 2018 - 12:00am

Author Correction: Dopamine transients are sufficient and necessary for acquisition of model-based associations

Author Correction: Dopamine transients are sufficient and necessary for acquisition of model-based associations, Published online: 17 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0202-5

Author Correction: Dopamine transients are sufficient and necessary for acquisition of model-based associations
Categories: Neuroscience

Publisher Correction: Tuned thalamic excitation is amplified by visual cortical circuits

Nature Neuroscience - 16 July 2018 - 12:00am

Publisher Correction: Tuned thalamic excitation is amplified by visual cortical circuits

Publisher Correction: Tuned thalamic excitation is amplified by visual cortical circuits, Published online: 16 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0181-6

Publisher Correction: Tuned thalamic excitation is amplified by visual cortical circuits
Categories: Neuroscience

PKCα integrates spatiotemporally distinct Ca<sup>2+</sup> and autocrine BDNF signaling to facilitate synaptic plasticity

Nature Neuroscience - 16 July 2018 - 12:00am

PKCα integrates spatiotemporally distinct Ca2+ and autocrine BDNF signaling to facilitate synaptic plasticity

PKCα integrates spatiotemporally distinct Ca<sup>2+</sup> and autocrine BDNF signaling to facilitate synaptic plasticity, Published online: 16 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0184-3

Through the development of novel PKC biosensors, the authors describe how PKCα, but not other classical isozymes, facilitates plasticity in dendritic regions through the integration of recent synaptic plasticity with current, local synaptic input.
Categories: Neuroscience

Author Correction: PV plasticity sustained through D1/5 dopamine signaling required for long-term memory consolidation

Nature Neuroscience - 16 July 2018 - 12:00am

Author Correction: PV plasticity sustained through D1/5 dopamine signaling required for long-term memory consolidation

Author Correction: PV plasticity sustained through D1/5 dopamine signaling required for long-term memory consolidation, Published online: 16 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0179-0

Author Correction: PV plasticity sustained through D1/5 dopamine signaling required for long-term memory consolidation
Categories: Neuroscience

FRETting over postsynaptic PKC signaling

Nature Neuroscience - 16 July 2018 - 12:00am

FRETting over postsynaptic PKC signaling

FRETting over postsynaptic PKC signaling, Published online: 16 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0190-5

Protein kinases are key regulators of excitatory synapse plasticity. In this issue, using novel optical reporters of protein kinase C (PKC) activity, Colgan et al. identify PKCα as critical for integrating NMDA receptor and neurotrophin signaling to control dendritic spine structural plasticity, synaptic potentiation, and learning and memory.
Categories: Neuroscience

A narcotic–narcoleptic link

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 16 July 2018 - 12:00am

A narcotic–narcoleptic link

A narcotic–narcoleptic link, Published online: 16 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0043-y

The brains of individuals who have been addicted to opiate drugs show an increase in the number of hypocretin-expressing neurons — the same neurons that are lost in individuals with narcolepsy.
Categories: Neuroscience

Bringing back early memories

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 16 July 2018 - 12:00am

Bringing back early memories

Bringing back early memories, Published online: 16 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0044-x

In mice, ‘lost’ infant memories can be recovered through the optogenetic reactivation of silent engrams in the hippocampus.
Categories: Neuroscience

On the nature and use of models in network neuroscience

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 12 July 2018 - 12:00am

On the nature and use of models in network neuroscience

On the nature and use of models in network neuroscience, Published online: 12 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0038-8

Modern network neuroscience involves the use of various types of models to understand the brain. In this Review, Bassett, Zurn and Gold discuss the aims of this approach before examining how network models may be categorized and validated.
Categories: Neuroscience

Converging inputs

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 10 July 2018 - 12:00am

Converging inputs

Converging inputs, Published online: 10 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0040-1

A study in flies shows that projections from some groups of glomerular neurons converge on certain types of lateral horn neurons to process combinations of odours that are salient for certain behaviours.
Categories: Neuroscience

Treasure hunt

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 10 July 2018 - 12:00am

Treasure hunt

Treasure hunt, Published online: 10 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0042-z

A discrete subpopulation of CA1 pyramidal cells is identified, which are distinct from place cells, that encode the location of a reward.
Categories: Neuroscience

The maternal vaginal microbiome partially mediates the effects of prenatal stress on offspring gut and hypothalamus

Nature Neuroscience - 9 July 2018 - 12:00am

The maternal vaginal microbiome partially mediates the effects of prenatal stress on offspring gut and hypothalamus

The maternal vaginal microbiome partially mediates the effects of prenatal stress on offspring gut and hypothalamus, Published online: 09 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0182-5

Maternal stress during pregnancy is a risk factor for neurodevelopmental disorders. Jasarevic and colleagues show that the maternal vaginal microbiota partially mediates the lasting effects of prenatal stress on the gut and hypothalamus in mice.
Categories: Neuroscience

Author Correction: Hippocampus-driven feed-forward inhibition of the prefrontal cortex mediates relapse of extinguished fear

Nature Neuroscience - 9 July 2018 - 12:00am

Author Correction: Hippocampus-driven feed-forward inhibition of the prefrontal cortex mediates relapse of extinguished fear

Author Correction: Hippocampus-driven feed-forward inhibition of the prefrontal cortex mediates relapse of extinguished fear, Published online: 09 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0183-4

Author Correction: Hippocampus-driven feed-forward inhibition of the prefrontal cortex mediates relapse of extinguished fear
Categories: Neuroscience

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