Neuroscience

Neural repair: Getting back on your hindlimbs

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 17 April 2018 - 12:00am

Neural repair: Getting back on your hindlimbs

Neural repair: Getting back on your hindlimbs, Published online: 17 April 2018; doi:10.1038/nrn.2018.39

A combination of electrochemical neuromodulation of spinal leg circuits and physical training in a robotic rehabilitation system restored volitional locomotion in rodents with severe spinal cord injury.
Categories: Neuroscience

Cortical drive and thalamic feed-forward inhibition control thalamic output synchrony during absence seizures

Nature Neuroscience - 16 April 2018 - 12:00am

Cortical drive and thalamic feed-forward inhibition control thalamic output synchrony during absence seizures

Cortical drive and thalamic feed-forward inhibition control thalamic output synchrony during absence seizures, Published online: 16 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0130-4

The authors demonstrate that the thalamic output during absence seizures is controlled and synchronized by a combination of excitation from the cortex and fast feedforward inhibition from reticular thalamus, with little involvement of thalamocortical neuron intrinsic mechanisms.
Categories: Neuroscience

The functional organization of cortical feedback inputs to primary visual cortex

Nature Neuroscience - 16 April 2018 - 12:00am

The functional organization of cortical feedback inputs to primary visual cortex

The functional organization of cortical feedback inputs to primary visual cortex, Published online: 16 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0135-z

The authors measured the organization of cortical feedback inputs in mouse primary visual cortex. They found that the locations in visual cortex targeted by feedback axons relate to their tuning properties according to a simple geometrical rule.
Categories: Neuroscience

Heartless beat or beatless heart?

Nature Neuroscience - 16 April 2018 - 12:00am

Heartless beat or beatless heart?

Heartless beat or beatless heart?, Published online: 16 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0140-2

Recurring bursts of thalamocortical cells were thought to be indispensable in driving absence seizures. A new study demonstrates that bursts from inhibitory thalamic reticular neurons are crucial instead. Reticular bursts are driven by cortical inputs and govern precise timing of thalamocortical cell activity during seizures.
Categories: Neuroscience

Locomotor activity modulates associative learning in mouse cerebellum

Nature Neuroscience - 16 April 2018 - 12:00am

Locomotor activity modulates associative learning in mouse cerebellum

Locomotor activity modulates associative learning in mouse cerebellum, Published online: 16 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0129-x

Albergaria et al. demonstrate that ongoing locomotor activity modulates cerebellum-dependent associative learning. Optogenetic circuit dissection reveals a site of locomotor modulation within the mossy fiber pathway in the cerebellum.
Categories: Neuroscience

Encoding of error and learning to correct that error by the Purkinje cells of the cerebellum

Nature Neuroscience - 16 April 2018 - 12:00am

Encoding of error and learning to correct that error by the Purkinje cells of the cerebellum

Encoding of error and learning to correct that error by the Purkinje cells of the cerebellum, Published online: 16 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0136-y

Herzfeld et al. examine how the cerebellum learns to correct movements. They find a timing code that links a Purkinje cell’s preference for error to its downstream projection on motor effectors that produce force to correct for that error.
Categories: Neuroscience

Yet another reason to walk instead of drive

Nature Neuroscience - 16 April 2018 - 12:00am

Yet another reason to walk instead of drive

Yet another reason to walk instead of drive, Published online: 16 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0142-0

The behavioral state of a human or animal can dramatically alter how information is processed in its neural circuits. Albergaria et al. show that locomotion enhances the performance of a cerebellum-dependent behavior. The results provide new constraints on how information is represented there to support learning.
Categories: Neuroscience

The basal ganglia and the cerebellum: nodes in an integrated network

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 11 April 2018 - 12:00am

The basal ganglia and the cerebellum: nodes in an integrated network

The basal ganglia and the cerebellum: nodes in an integrated network, Published online: 11 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0002-7

The basal ganglia and the cerebellum were thought to communicate via the cerebral cortex. In this Review, Andreea Bostan and Peter Strick discuss findings indicating that these subcortical areas are in fact interconnected and, along with the cerebral cortex, form an integrated network.
Categories: Neuroscience

Maternal IL-6 during pregnancy can be estimated from newborn brain connectivity and predicts future working memory in offspring

Nature Neuroscience - 9 April 2018 - 12:00am

Maternal IL-6 during pregnancy can be estimated from newborn brain connectivity and predicts future working memory in offspring

Maternal IL-6 during pregnancy can be estimated from newborn brain connectivity and predicts future working memory in offspring, Published online: 09 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0128-y

The authors show that maternal inflammation during pregnancy, indexed by IL-6, can be estimated from the newborn brain connectome and predicts future working memory performance in offspring at two years of age.
Categories: Neuroscience

A hypothalamic circuit for the circadian control of aggression

Nature Neuroscience - 9 April 2018 - 12:00am

A hypothalamic circuit for the circadian control of aggression

A hypothalamic circuit for the circadian control of aggression, Published online: 09 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0126-0

Todd et al. show a daily rhythm in aggression propensity in male mice and reveal a novel polysynaptic circuit within the hypothalamus by which the central circadian clock (the suprachiasmatic nucleus) influences neurons that regulate attack behavior.
Categories: Neuroscience

Baby brains reflect maternal inflammation

Nature Neuroscience - 9 April 2018 - 12:00am

Baby brains reflect maternal inflammation

Baby brains reflect maternal inflammation, Published online: 09 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0134-0

Epidemiology and animal research have shown that the offspring of mothers who experience inflammation during pregnancy are at increased risk for psychopathology. A human study links a mother’s inflammation during pregnancy to her newborn’s functional brain organization and the child’s working memory two years later.
Categories: Neuroscience

Tbr1 instructs laminar patterning of retinal ganglion cell dendrites

Nature Neuroscience - 9 April 2018 - 12:00am

Tbr1 instructs laminar patterning of retinal ganglion cell dendrites

Tbr1 instructs laminar patterning of retinal ganglion cell dendrites, Published online: 09 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0127-z

Specific retinal connectivity depends on laminar restriction of neuronal processes. The authors show that a single transcription factor specifies a common laminar identity in dendrites of four retinal cell types, albeit via cell-type-specific means.
Categories: Neuroscience

Neurogenesis: News of no new neurons?

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 5 April 2018 - 12:00am

Neurogenesis: News of no new neurons?

Neurogenesis: News of no new neurons?, Published online: 05 April 2018; doi:10.1038/nrn.2018.34

A study of post-mortem brains from individuals of difference ages suggests that hippocampal neurogenesis in humans decreases during childhood and is absent in adults.
Categories: Neuroscience

Myelin: Wrapped up

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 5 April 2018 - 12:00am

Myelin: Wrapped up

Myelin: Wrapped up, Published online: 05 April 2018; doi:10.1038/nrn.2018.36

Myelin: Wrapped up
Categories: Neuroscience

Techniques: MEG in motion

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 5 April 2018 - 12:00am

Techniques: MEG in motion

Techniques: MEG in motion, Published online: 05 April 2018; doi:10.1038/nrn.2018.38

Techniques: MEG in motion
Categories: Neuroscience

Fibrinogen in neurological diseases: mechanisms, imaging and therapeutics

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 5 April 2018 - 12:00am

Fibrinogen in neurological diseases: mechanisms, imaging and therapeutics

Fibrinogen in neurological diseases: mechanisms, imaging and therapeutics, Published online: 05 April 2018; doi:10.1038/nrn.2018.13

Fibrinogen enters the brain in a wide range of brain diseases that involve blood–brain barrier disruption. In this Review, Petersen et al. discuss recent evidence that fibrinogen causes damage that contributes to the pathology of a range of neurological disorders and discuss therapeutic implications.
Categories: Neuroscience

Neural circuits: Balancing threats

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 5 April 2018 - 12:00am

Neural circuits: Balancing threats

Neural circuits: Balancing threats, Published online: 05 April 2018; doi:10.1038/nrn.2018.35

Two studies provide insight into the neural circuits integrating competing threat signals, such as pain and hunger.
Categories: Neuroscience

Techniques: In a split sequence

Nature Rev. Neurosc. - 5 April 2018 - 12:00am

Techniques: In a split sequence

Techniques: In a split sequence, Published online: 05 April 2018; doi:10.1038/nrn.2018.37

Techniques: In a split sequence
Categories: Neuroscience

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