Nature Rev. Neurosc.
A narcotic–narcoleptic link
A narcotic–narcoleptic link, Published online: 16 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0043-yThe brains of individuals who have been addicted to opiate drugs show an increase in the number of hypocretin-expressing neurons — the same neurons that are lost in individuals with narcolepsy.
Bringing back early memories
Bringing back early memories, Published online: 16 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0044-xIn mice, ‘lost’ infant memories can be recovered through the optogenetic reactivation of silent engrams in the hippocampus.
On the nature and use of models in network neuroscience
On the nature and use of models in network neuroscience, Published online: 12 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0038-8Modern network neuroscience involves the use of various types of models to understand the brain. In this Review, Bassett, Zurn and Gold discuss the aims of this approach before examining how network models may be categorized and validated.
Converging inputs, Published online: 10 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0040-1A study in flies shows that projections from some groups of glomerular neurons converge on certain types of lateral horn neurons to process combinations of odours that are salient for certain behaviours.
Treasure hunt, Published online: 10 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0042-zA discrete subpopulation of CA1 pyramidal cells is identified, which are distinct from place cells, that encode the location of a reward.
Modelling microglial function with induced pluripotent stem cells: an update
Modelling microglial function with induced pluripotent stem cells: an update, Published online: 05 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0030-3In recent years, several studies have reported the production of microglia-like cells from induced pluripotent stem cells. Pocock and Piers describe the methods used to produce and analyse these cells and their potential to improve our understanding of microglial function.
The role of engram cells in the systems consolidation of memory
The role of engram cells in the systems consolidation of memory, Published online: 03 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0031-2Long-term episodic memory storage has been proposed to require a reorganization of neural circuits and networks in a process known as systems consolidation. Tonegawa and colleagues discuss recent advances in our understanding of the contribution of engram cells to this process.
Sleep it off
Sleep it off, Published online: 26 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0037-9A set of 80 (mostly synaptic) proteins show hyperphosphorylation in sleep-deprived mice and genetically ‘sleepy’ mice, suggesting that increased phosphorylation of such proteins may be associated with sleep need.
Neuroscience of apathy and anhedonia: a transdiagnostic approach
Neuroscience of apathy and anhedonia: a transdiagnostic approach, Published online: 26 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0029-9Anhedonia and apathy are syndromes affecting motivation and have been reported in various neurological and psychiatric disorders. Husain and Roiser examine the neural mechanisms underlying apathy and anhedonia within a transdiagnostic framework of effort-based decision making for reward.
Losing sleep over lipids
Losing sleep over lipids, Published online: 22 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0033-0In genetic fly models of Parkinson disease, disrupted lipid trafficking in neuropeptidergic neurons leads to circadian disruption.
Generation of circadian rhythms in the suprachiasmatic nucleus
Generation of circadian rhythms in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, Published online: 22 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0026-zIn mammals, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus acts as the principal pacemaker for circadian rhythms, which are powerful regulators of physiology and behaviour. In this Review, Hastings, Maywood and Brancaccio examine the molecular, cellular and circuit mechanisms underlying time-keeping in the SCN.
Trading places, Published online: 22 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0032-1Insights into the molecular and cellular mechanisms by which the APOE4 variant increases risk for Alzheimer disease are gained by comparing transcriptomes of neurons, astrocytes and microglia derived from isogenic APOE3- and APOE4-carrying iPSC cell lines.
Opioid receptors: drivers to addiction?
Opioid receptors: drivers to addiction?, Published online: 22 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0028-xThe opioid system is central to addiction. Darcq and Kieffer review the role of these receptors in the addiction neurocircuitry, ask whether opioid receptors can be targeted to kill pain without addiction and discuss studies that bridge the translational gap in the field.
Influencing identity, Published online: 21 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0036-xInfluencing identity
Expanding knowledge, Published online: 21 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0034-zExpanding knowledge
A matter of taste
A matter of taste, Published online: 21 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0035-yA matter of taste
Modulating microglia, Published online: 07 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0027-yIn mice with experimental autoimmune encephalitis, dietary metabolites of tryptophan may modulate the activities of glia to influence neuroinflammation.
A pathway less travelled
A pathway less travelled, Published online: 05 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0025-0Opiate drugs and opioid peptides differ in their effects on intracellular signalling, in which following ligand–receptor binding and internalization, opioids continue to signal from endosomes, whereas opiates activate receptors located at the Golgi.
Socioeconomic status and the brain: prospects for neuroscience-informed policy
Socioeconomic status and the brain: prospects for neuroscience-informed policy, Published online: 04 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0023-2A growing field of research seeks to establish a neuroscientific basis for the correlations between socioeconomic status and life outcomes. Farah evaluates the opportunities and challenges that face the application of this field to wider policy discussions.
Specializations for reward-guided decision-making in the primate ventral prefrontal cortex
Specializations for reward-guided decision-making in the primate ventral prefrontal cortex, Published online: 23 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0013-4Decision-making requires us to correctly evaluate the likely outcomes of our choices. Murray and Rudebeck describe how evidence from lesion and neurophysiology studies in non-human primates has given us insight into the specific contributions of prefrontal cortex subdivisions in this process.