Nature Rev. Neurosc.

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Time to get tough

18 April 2018 - 12:00am

Time to get tough

Time to get tough, Published online: 18 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0005-4

In mice, aggression is regulated by the circadian suprachiasmatic nucleus through at least two neural pathways.
Categories: Neuroscience

Intrinsic mechanisms of neuronal axon regeneration

17 April 2018 - 12:00am

Intrinsic mechanisms of neuronal axon regeneration

Intrinsic mechanisms of neuronal axon regeneration, Published online: 17 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0001-8

Peripheral axon injury initiates a regenerative response that is absent in CNS axons. Mahar and Cavalli describe the mechanisms that initiate and coordinate the programme of transcriptional and epigenetic changes that enable axon regeneration in the peripheral nervous system.
Categories: Neuroscience

Feeding circuit development and early-life influences on future feeding behaviour

17 April 2018 - 12:00am

Feeding circuit development and early-life influences on future feeding behaviour

Feeding circuit development and early-life influences on future feeding behaviour, Published online: 17 April 2018; doi:10.1038/nrn.2018.23

The extent and contribution of maternal influence to the developing hypothalamus to later feeding behaviour remain controversial. In this Opinion, Zeltser proposes that crosstalk between developing circuits regulating different modalities of food intake shapes susceptibility to environmental challenges.
Categories: Neuroscience

Neural repair: Getting back on your hindlimbs

17 April 2018 - 12:00am

Neural repair: Getting back on your hindlimbs

Neural repair: Getting back on your hindlimbs, Published online: 17 April 2018; doi:10.1038/nrn.2018.39

A combination of electrochemical neuromodulation of spinal leg circuits and physical training in a robotic rehabilitation system restored volitional locomotion in rodents with severe spinal cord injury.
Categories: Neuroscience

The basal ganglia and the cerebellum: nodes in an integrated network

11 April 2018 - 12:00am

The basal ganglia and the cerebellum: nodes in an integrated network

The basal ganglia and the cerebellum: nodes in an integrated network, Published online: 11 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0002-7

The basal ganglia and the cerebellum were thought to communicate via the cerebral cortex. In this Review, Andreea Bostan and Peter Strick discuss findings indicating that these subcortical areas are in fact interconnected and, along with the cerebral cortex, form an integrated network.
Categories: Neuroscience

Neurogenesis: News of no new neurons?

5 April 2018 - 12:00am

Neurogenesis: News of no new neurons?

Neurogenesis: News of no new neurons?, Published online: 05 April 2018; doi:10.1038/nrn.2018.34

A study of post-mortem brains from individuals of difference ages suggests that hippocampal neurogenesis in humans decreases during childhood and is absent in adults.
Categories: Neuroscience

Myelin: Wrapped up

5 April 2018 - 12:00am

Myelin: Wrapped up

Myelin: Wrapped up, Published online: 05 April 2018; doi:10.1038/nrn.2018.36

Myelin: Wrapped up
Categories: Neuroscience

Techniques: MEG in motion

5 April 2018 - 12:00am

Techniques: MEG in motion

Techniques: MEG in motion, Published online: 05 April 2018; doi:10.1038/nrn.2018.38

Techniques: MEG in motion
Categories: Neuroscience

Fibrinogen in neurological diseases: mechanisms, imaging and therapeutics

5 April 2018 - 12:00am

Fibrinogen in neurological diseases: mechanisms, imaging and therapeutics

Fibrinogen in neurological diseases: mechanisms, imaging and therapeutics, Published online: 05 April 2018; doi:10.1038/nrn.2018.13

Fibrinogen enters the brain in a wide range of brain diseases that involve blood–brain barrier disruption. In this Review, Petersen et al. discuss recent evidence that fibrinogen causes damage that contributes to the pathology of a range of neurological disorders and discuss therapeutic implications.
Categories: Neuroscience

Neural circuits: Balancing threats

5 April 2018 - 12:00am

Neural circuits: Balancing threats

Neural circuits: Balancing threats, Published online: 05 April 2018; doi:10.1038/nrn.2018.35

Two studies provide insight into the neural circuits integrating competing threat signals, such as pain and hunger.
Categories: Neuroscience

Techniques: In a split sequence

5 April 2018 - 12:00am

Techniques: In a split sequence

Techniques: In a split sequence, Published online: 05 April 2018; doi:10.1038/nrn.2018.37

Techniques: In a split sequence
Categories: Neuroscience

Surviving threats: neural circuit and computational implications of a new taxonomy of defensive behaviour

29 March 2018 - 12:00am

Surviving threats: neural circuit and computational implications of a new taxonomy of defensive behaviour

Surviving threats: neural circuit and computational implications of a new taxonomy of defensive behaviour, Published online: 29 March 2018; doi:10.1038/nrn.2018.22

Animals exhibit a variety of different responses to threatening stimuli, including both innate and instrumental behaviours. LeDoux and Daw describe a new taxonomy of defensive behaviours and review what we know about the underlying neural circuits and computational processes.
Categories: Neuroscience

Cortical travelling waves: mechanisms and computational principles

22 March 2018 - 12:00am

Cortical travelling waves: mechanisms and computational principles

Cortical travelling waves: mechanisms and computational principles, Published online: 22 March 2018; doi:10.1038/nrn.2018.20

Advanced recording techniques have enabled the identification of travelling waves of neuronal activity in different areas of the cortex. Sejnowski and colleagues review these findings, consider the mechanisms by which travelling waves are generated and evaluate their possible roles in cortical function.
Categories: Neuroscience

Neural development: Instigating engulfment

22 March 2018 - 12:00am

Neural development: Instigating engulfment

Neural development: Instigating engulfment, Published online: 22 March 2018; doi:10.1038/nrn.2018.31

In the spinal cord and thalamus of mice, astrocyte-generated interleukin-33 instructs microglia to engulf synapses and thus regulates neural circuit development.
Categories: Neuroscience

Spinal cord: Making new connections

22 March 2018 - 12:00am

Spinal cord: Making new connections

Spinal cord: Making new connections, Published online: 22 March 2018; doi:10.1038/nrn.2018.33

This study shows that human neural stem cell grafts re-establish a neuronal relay across spinal cord injury in rhesus monkeys.
Categories: Neuroscience

Dendritic structural plasticity and neuropsychiatric disease

16 March 2018 - 12:00am

Dendritic structural plasticity and neuropsychiatric disease

Dendritic structural plasticity and neuropsychiatric disease, Published online: 16 March 2018; doi:10.1038/nrn.2018.16

The morphology of dendrites and dendritic spines changes with development and as a result of activity-dependent plasticity mechanisms. Penzes and colleagues describe the altered dendritic structural plasticity that is associated with some neuropsychiatric disorders and consider the underlying molecular mechanisms, based on recent genetic discoveries.
Categories: Neuroscience

Gene expression: Key codes

8 March 2018 - 12:00am

Gene expression: Key codes

Gene expression: Key codes, Published online: 08 March 2018; doi:10.1038/nrn.2018.24

Gene expression: Key codes
Categories: Neuroscience

Cell biology of the neuron: Untangling the ubiquitin–proteasome system

8 March 2018 - 12:00am

Cell biology of the neuron: Untangling the ubiquitin–proteasome system

Cell biology of the neuron: Untangling the ubiquitin–proteasome system, Published online: 08 March 2018; doi:10.1038/nrn.2018.26

Cell biology of the neuron: Untangling the ubiquitin–proteasome system
Categories: Neuroscience

Neuronal plasticity: Upscale, downscale

8 March 2018 - 12:00am

Neuronal plasticity: Upscale, downscale

Neuronal plasticity: Upscale, downscale, Published online: 08 March 2018; doi:10.1038/nrn.2018.30

Neurons exhibiting synaptic upscaling or downscaling in response to decreases or increases in activity, respectively, show changes in protein expression that depend on the duration and the polarity of the change.
Categories: Neuroscience

Lactate in the brain: from metabolic end-product to signalling molecule

8 March 2018 - 12:00am

Lactate in the brain: from metabolic end-product to signalling molecule

Lactate in the brain: from metabolic end-product to signalling molecule, Published online: 08 March 2018; doi:10.1038/nrn.2018.19

Much research has shown that lactate produced by astrocytes serves as a neuronal energy substrate. In this Review, Magistretti and Allaman describe this model as well as recent evidence that lactate also modulates neuronal properties, including excitability and plasticity, thus helping to set the 'homeostatic tone' of the nervous system.
Categories: Neuroscience

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