Nature Neuroscience

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Nature Neuroscience offers a unique mix of opinion and reviews alongside top-quality research papers. Published monthly, in print and online, the journal reflects the entire spectrum of neuroscience, from molecular to cognitive.
Updated: 11 hours 37 min ago

The timing of action determines reward prediction signals in identified midbrain dopamine neurons

15 October 2018 - 12:00am

The timing of action determines reward prediction signals in identified midbrain dopamine neurons

The timing of action determines reward prediction signals in identified midbrain dopamine neurons, Published online: 15 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0245-7

As naive mice learn a stimulus–reward association, DA neuron activity first reflects the timing of reward-seeking actions relative to predictable stimuli & rewards. As actions are refined by learning, DA neuron activity can reflect prediction errors.
Categories: Neuroscience

Volitional social interaction prevents drug addiction in rat models

15 October 2018 - 12:00am

Volitional social interaction prevents drug addiction in rat models

Volitional social interaction prevents drug addiction in rat models, Published online: 15 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0246-6

Venniro et al. report that drug-addicted rats reliably choose contact with another rat over drugs, even when group-housed between tests. They also do not show the increase in drug craving that normally occurs during forced abstinence.
Categories: Neuroscience

Integration of gene expression and brain-wide connectivity reveals the multiscale organization of mouse hippocampal networks

8 October 2018 - 12:00am

Integration of gene expression and brain-wide connectivity reveals the multiscale organization of mouse hippocampal networks

Integration of gene expression and brain-wide connectivity reveals the multiscale organization of mouse hippocampal networks, Published online: 08 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0241-y

Bienkowski et al. have created a new subregional atlas of the mouse hippocampus that integrates gene expression with anatomical connectivity to reveal the multiscale organization of the hippocampus and its connections throughout the brain.
Categories: Neuroscience

Maladaptive cortical hyperactivity upon recovery from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

26 September 2018 - 12:00am

Maladaptive cortical hyperactivity upon recovery from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

Maladaptive cortical hyperactivity upon recovery from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, Published online: 26 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0193-2

The authors report TNFα-dependent hyperactivity in cortical microcircuits during remission in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis, a maladaptive response to the immune attack with behavioral changes.
Categories: Neuroscience

Propagation and spread of pathogenic protein assemblies in neurodegenerative diseases

26 September 2018 - 12:00am

Propagation and spread of pathogenic protein assemblies in neurodegenerative diseases

Propagation and spread of pathogenic protein assemblies in neurodegenerative diseases, Published online: 26 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0238-6

Many neurodegenerative diseases involve the seeded propagation and spread of abnormally shaped proteins within the nervous system. The resulting disease reflects the interaction between the misfolded proteins and the host milieu.
Categories: Neuroscience

Double threat in striatal dopamine signaling

26 September 2018 - 12:00am

Double threat in striatal dopamine signaling

Double threat in striatal dopamine signaling, Published online: 26 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0243-9

In this issue of Nature Neuroscience, Menegas et al. demonstrate a role for midbrain dopamine neurons projecting to the tail of the striatum in encoding stimulus novelty and threat avoidance. From this study emerges a model whereby distinct dopaminergic projections to striatum influence behavior along at least two axes, one representing value and one representing threat.
Categories: Neuroscience

Microglia in neurodegeneration

26 September 2018 - 12:00am

Microglia in neurodegeneration

Microglia in neurodegeneration, Published online: 26 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0242-x

Microglia are the sentinels, housekeepers, and defenders of the brain. In this review we consider the immune checkpoints that control microglial functions and discuss how their imbalance and subsequent neuroinflammation leads to neurodegeneration.
Categories: Neuroscience

Triple dissociation of attention and decision computations across prefrontal cortex

26 September 2018 - 12:00am

Triple dissociation of attention and decision computations across prefrontal cortex

Triple dissociation of attention and decision computations across prefrontal cortex, Published online: 26 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0239-5

Hunt, Malalasekera et al. recorded populations of prefrontal neurons from monkeys performing a visual attention-guided-choice task. The results revealed that distinct computations in three PFC subregions as information was sampled guided the eventual decision.
Categories: Neuroscience

Deconstructing and targeting the genomic architecture of human neurodegeneration

26 September 2018 - 12:00am

Deconstructing and targeting the genomic architecture of human neurodegeneration

Deconstructing and targeting the genomic architecture of human neurodegeneration, Published online: 26 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0240-z

Older people often have more than one form of neuropathology. The authors describe how insights from the genomic architecture of syndromically defined neurodegenerative diseases can be integrated to inform person-specific trajectories of brain aging.
Categories: Neuroscience

Converging pathways in neurodegeneration, from genetics to mechanisms

26 September 2018 - 12:00am

Converging pathways in neurodegeneration, from genetics to mechanisms

Converging pathways in neurodegeneration, from genetics to mechanisms, Published online: 26 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0237-7

Neurodegenerative diseases cause progressive loss of brain functions associated with aging. Here we review intricate genotype–phenotype relationships, shared pathogenic mechanisms, and emerging therapeutic opportunities and challenges.
Categories: Neuroscience

Focus on neurodegenerative disease

26 September 2018 - 12:00am

Focus on neurodegenerative disease

Focus on neurodegenerative disease, Published online: 26 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0250-x

Focus on neurodegenerative disease
Categories: Neuroscience

Protein misfolding, aggregation, and conformational strains in neurodegenerative diseases

24 September 2018 - 12:00am

Protein misfolding, aggregation, and conformational strains in neurodegenerative diseases

Protein misfolding, aggregation, and conformational strains in neurodegenerative diseases, Published online: 24 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0235-9

A newly recognized process in neurodegenerative disease is accumulation of misfolded protein aggregates that self-replicate to spread damage between cells and tissues. This process has implications in designing strategies for treatment and diagnosis.
Categories: Neuroscience

The role of brain vasculature in neurodegenerative disorders

24 September 2018 - 12:00am

The role of brain vasculature in neurodegenerative disorders

The role of brain vasculature in neurodegenerative disorders, Published online: 24 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0234-x

Adequate blood supply and vascular integrity are key to normal brain functioning. Cerebral blood flow and blood–brain barrier disruption contribute to Alzheimer’s disease and other neurodegenerative disorders as reviewed in humans and animal models.
Categories: Neuroscience

Animal models of neurodegenerative diseases

24 September 2018 - 12:00am

Animal models of neurodegenerative diseases

Animal models of neurodegenerative diseases, Published online: 24 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0236-8

The authors review the current state of rodent models for AD, PD, FTD, and ALS. Limitations and utility of current models, issues regarding translatability, and future directions for developing animal models of these human disorders are discussed.
Categories: Neuroscience

Selective vulnerability in neurodegenerative diseases

24 September 2018 - 12:00am

Selective vulnerability in neurodegenerative diseases

Selective vulnerability in neurodegenerative diseases, Published online: 24 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0221-2

Neurodegenerative diseases impact specific cell populations within the brain. However, not all cells within the population are impacted, a phenomenon called selective cellular vulnerability. The molecular basis of this vulnerability is discussed.
Categories: Neuroscience

Impaired perceptual learning in a mouse model of Fragile X syndrome is mediated by parvalbumin neuron dysfunction and is reversible

24 September 2018 - 12:00am

Impaired perceptual learning in a mouse model of Fragile X syndrome is mediated by parvalbumin neuron dysfunction and is reversible

Impaired perceptual learning in a mouse model of Fragile X syndrome is mediated by parvalbumin neuron dysfunction and is reversible, Published online: 24 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0231-0

Goel et al found similar deficits in visual discrimination in humans and in a mouse model of FXS. In mice, a robust decrease in PV cell activity mediated this impairment, suggesting that manipulating inhibition may improve sensory processing in FXS.
Categories: Neuroscience

Deconstructing the synapse

24 September 2018 - 12:00am

Deconstructing the synapse

Deconstructing the synapse, Published online: 24 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0244-8

While the role of protein synthesis in synaptic plasticity and memory is well-established, protein degradation processes have been less studied. A seminal 2003 Nature Neuroscience paper showed that ubiquitin-dependent degradation of synaptic proteins is engaged during activity-regulated synaptic remodeling.
Categories: Neuroscience

Restoring wild-type-like CA1 network dynamics and behavior during adulthood in a mouse model of schizophrenia

17 September 2018 - 12:00am

Restoring wild-type-like CA1 network dynamics and behavior during adulthood in a mouse model of schizophrenia

Restoring wild-type-like CA1 network dynamics and behavior during adulthood in a mouse model of schizophrenia, Published online: 17 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0225-y

The authors report that impaired hippocampal synchrony in a mouse model of schizophrenia is due to parvalbumin interneuron hypoexcitability. Rescuing interneuron excitability during adulthood restores wild-type-like network dynamics and behavior.
Categories: Neuroscience

Enhancers active in dopamine neurons are a primary link between genetic variation and neuropsychiatric disease

17 September 2018 - 12:00am

Enhancers active in dopamine neurons are a primary link between genetic variation and neuropsychiatric disease

Enhancers active in dopamine neurons are a primary link between genetic variation and neuropsychiatric disease, Published online: 17 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0223-0

The BRAINcode consortium found that tens of thousands of transcribed noncoding elements (TNEs) from the ‘dark matter’ of our genome are active in dopamine neurons. They may be linked to schizophrenia, Parkinson’s disease, and addiction.
Categories: Neuroscience

Social reward monitoring and valuation in the macaque brain

17 September 2018 - 12:00am

Social reward monitoring and valuation in the macaque brain

Social reward monitoring and valuation in the macaque brain, Published online: 17 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0229-7

Applying a social Pavlovian conditioning procedure for macaques, this study shows that medial prefrontal neurons selectively monitor self-reward or other-reward information and that dopamine neurons integrate this information into subjective value.
Categories: Neuroscience

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