Nature Neuroscience

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Nature Neuroscience offers a unique mix of opinion and reviews alongside top-quality research papers. Published monthly, in print and online, the journal reflects the entire spectrum of neuroscience, from molecular to cognitive.
Updated: 10 hours 15 min ago

Publisher Correction: Midbrain activity can explain perceptual decisions during an attention task

15 January 2019 - 12:00am

Publisher Correction: Midbrain activity can explain perceptual decisions during an attention task

Publisher Correction: Midbrain activity can explain perceptual decisions during an attention task, Published online: 15 January 2019; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0319-6

Publisher Correction: Midbrain activity can explain perceptual decisions during an attention task
Categories: Neuroscience

ALS-implicated protein TDP-43 sustains levels of STMN2, a mediator of motor neuron growth and repair

14 January 2019 - 12:00am

ALS-implicated protein TDP-43 sustains levels of STMN2, a mediator of motor neuron growth and repair

ALS-implicated protein TDP-43 sustains levels of STMN2, a mediator of motor neuron growth and repair, Published online: 14 January 2019; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0300-4

Klim et al. illuminate pathomechanisms of ALS using pluripotent stem cells to identify transcripts altered in human motor neurons by perturbations to ALS protein TDP-43, finding the microtubule regulator STMN2 highly sensitive to TDP-43 malfunctions.
Categories: Neuroscience

Precise temporal memories are supported by the lateral entorhinal cortex in humans

14 January 2019 - 12:00am

Precise temporal memories are supported by the lateral entorhinal cortex in humans

Precise temporal memories are supported by the lateral entorhinal cortex in humans, Published online: 14 January 2019; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0303-1

In the lateral entorhinal cortex, high-precision judgments related to timing were associated with greater blood-oxygen-level-dependent fMRI activity than low-precision time judgments. This brain region may be involved in memory for when events occur.
Categories: Neuroscience

Time is just a memory

14 January 2019 - 12:00am

Time is just a memory

Time is just a memory, Published online: 14 January 2019; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0331-x

Experience unfolds continuously in time, but we remember discrete sequences of events. In this issue of Nature Neuroscience, Montchal et al. describe brain activity patterns that predict how well people remember precisely when recent events occurred. Converging evidence suggests that homologous neural machinery structures temporal representations in rats and people.
Categories: Neuroscience

Cortical microcircuitry of performance monitoring

14 January 2019 - 12:00am

Cortical microcircuitry of performance monitoring

Cortical microcircuitry of performance monitoring, Published online: 14 January 2019; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0309-8

Concurrently recording neural spiking across cortical layers in a medial frontal area with EEG reveals the microcircuitry of error and reward signals, showing how neural circuits can realize executive control and produce error-related negativity.
Categories: Neuroscience

Task representations in neural networks trained to perform many cognitive tasks

14 January 2019 - 12:00am

Task representations in neural networks trained to perform many cognitive tasks

Task representations in neural networks trained to perform many cognitive tasks, Published online: 14 January 2019; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0310-2

Prefrontal cortex can be flexibly engaged in many different tasks. Yang et al. trained an artificial neural network to solve 20 cognitive tasks. Functionally specialized modules and compositional representations emerged in the network after training.
Categories: Neuroscience

Premature polyadenylation-mediated loss of stathmin-2 is a hallmark of TDP-43-dependent neurodegeneration

14 January 2019 - 12:00am

Premature polyadenylation-mediated loss of stathmin-2 is a hallmark of TDP-43-dependent neurodegeneration

Premature polyadenylation-mediated loss of stathmin-2 is a hallmark of TDP-43-dependent neurodegeneration, Published online: 14 January 2019; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0293-z

The mRNA encoding stathmin-2, a protein implicated in axonal growth, is shown to be widely suppressed by premature polyadenylation in both sporadic and C9orf72 ALS through a mechanism directly dependent on loss of nuclear TDP-43 in motor neurons.
Categories: Neuroscience

Neuronal brain-region-specific DNA methylation and chromatin accessibility are associated with neuropsychiatric trait heritability

14 January 2019 - 12:00am

Neuronal brain-region-specific DNA methylation and chromatin accessibility are associated with neuropsychiatric trait heritability

Neuronal brain-region-specific DNA methylation and chromatin accessibility are associated with neuropsychiatric trait heritability, Published online: 14 January 2019; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0297-8

An extensive profile of DNA methylation in neuronal and non-neuronal cells across four brain regions is reported, showing that differential epigenetic marks are enriched for DNA variants associated with neuropsychiatric traits.
Categories: Neuroscience

Active control of arousal by a locus coeruleus GABAergic circuit

14 January 2019 - 12:00am

Active control of arousal by a locus coeruleus GABAergic circuit

Active control of arousal by a locus coeruleus GABAergic circuit, Published online: 14 January 2019; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0305-z

The authors describe a local population of GABAergic neurons that directly inhibits locus coeruleus noradrenergic neurons. They show how this circuit regulates arousal gain and tone.
Categories: Neuroscience

Publisher Correction: Genome-wide association study of delay discounting in 23,217 adult research participants of European ancestry

8 January 2019 - 12:00am

Publisher Correction: Genome-wide association study of delay discounting in 23,217 adult research participants of European ancestry

Publisher Correction: Genome-wide association study of delay discounting in 23,217 adult research participants of European ancestry, Published online: 08 January 2019; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0306-y

Publisher Correction: Genome-wide association study of delay discounting in 23,217 adult research participants of European ancestry
Categories: Neuroscience

Loss of TREM2 function increases amyloid seeding but reduces plaque-associated ApoE

7 January 2019 - 12:00am

Loss of TREM2 function increases amyloid seeding but reduces plaque-associated ApoE

Loss of TREM2 function increases amyloid seeding but reduces plaque-associated ApoE, Published online: 07 January 2019; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0296-9

Loss of Trem2 function increases early amyloidogenesis by preventing microglial activation and clustering around amyloid seeds. As a consequence of reduced microglial ApoE production in the absence of Trem2 function, amyloid plaques contain less ApoE.
Categories: Neuroscience

Pathological priming causes developmental gene network heterochronicity in autistic subject-derived neurons

7 January 2019 - 12:00am

Pathological priming causes developmental gene network heterochronicity in autistic subject-derived neurons

Pathological priming causes developmental gene network heterochronicity in autistic subject-derived neurons, Published online: 07 January 2019; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0295-x

Using a dynamic time-course approach to model developmental trajectories in autism spectrum disorder, Schafer et al. identified aberrant gene network dynamics as a part of an ongoing process that is primed early in development.
Categories: Neuroscience

Back to baseline: sleep recalibrates synapses

7 January 2019 - 12:00am

Back to baseline: sleep recalibrates synapses

Back to baseline: sleep recalibrates synapses, Published online: 07 January 2019; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0327-6

In 2008, Vyazovskiy et al. published a seminal study demonstrating that sleep induces a widespread downscaling of synapses that counters the synaptic upscaling that occurred during prior wakefulness. The study laid the groundwork for current research into the ‘where’ and ‘when’ of homeostatic neuronal network regulation during sleep.
Categories: Neuroscience

Panoptic imaging of transparent mice reveals whole-body neuronal projections and skull–meninges connections

31 December 2018 - 12:00am

Panoptic imaging of transparent mice reveals whole-body neuronal projections and skull–meninges connections

Panoptic imaging of transparent mice reveals whole-body neuronal projections and skull–meninges connections, Published online: 31 December 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0301-3

A nanobody-based immunolabeling method, vDISCO, boosts the signal of fluorescent proteins and allows imaging of subcellular details in intact transparent mice. It uncovers neuronal projections and skull–meninges connections in whole adult mice.
Categories: Neuroscience

Publisher Correction: Motor primitives in space and time via targeted gain modulation in cortical networks

19 December 2018 - 12:00am

Publisher Correction: Motor primitives in space and time via targeted gain modulation in cortical networks

Publisher Correction: Motor primitives in space and time via targeted gain modulation in cortical networks, Published online: 19 December 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0307-x

Publisher Correction: Motor primitives in space and time via targeted gain modulation in cortical networks
Categories: Neuroscience

TDP-43 extracted from frontotemporal lobar degeneration subject brains displays distinct aggregate assemblies and neurotoxic effects reflecting disease progression rates

17 December 2018 - 12:00am

TDP-43 extracted from frontotemporal lobar degeneration subject brains displays distinct aggregate assemblies and neurotoxic effects reflecting disease progression rates

TDP-43 extracted from frontotemporal lobar degeneration subject brains displays distinct aggregate assemblies and neurotoxic effects reflecting disease progression rates, Published online: 17 December 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0294-y

Using a newly developed biochemical method for aggregated protein extraction, Laferrière and colleagues uncover different neurotoxic types of pathologic TDP-43 assemblies in the brains of subjects with distinct subtypes of frontotemporal dementia.
Categories: Neuroscience

Efficient coding of subjective value

17 December 2018 - 12:00am

Efficient coding of subjective value

Efficient coding of subjective value, Published online: 17 December 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0292-0

Polanía et al. show that, similarly to sensory signals, subjective preferences guiding choice are represented by the brain in a manner that accounts for regularities of the environment, thereby optimizing use of limited neural processing resources.
Categories: Neuroscience

A tau homeostasis signature is linked with the cellular and regional vulnerability of excitatory neurons to tau pathology

17 December 2018 - 12:00am

A tau homeostasis signature is linked with the cellular and regional vulnerability of excitatory neurons to tau pathology

A tau homeostasis signature is linked with the cellular and regional vulnerability of excitatory neurons to tau pathology, Published online: 17 December 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0298-7

Neuron types vulnerable to tau accumulation (excitatory neurons) in AD brain are intrinsically less able to maintain tau homeostasis than neuron types that are resistant (inhibitory neurons).
Categories: Neuroscience

Invasion of white matter tracts by glioma stem cells is regulated by a <i>NOTCH1</i>–<i>SOX2</i> positive-feedback loop

17 December 2018 - 12:00am

Invasion of white matter tracts by glioma stem cells is regulated by a NOTCH1SOX2 positive-feedback loop

Invasion of white matter tracts by glioma stem cells is regulated by a <i>NOTCH1</i>–<i>SOX2</i> positive-feedback loop, Published online: 17 December 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0285-z

CD133 and Notch1 double-positive GSCs were preferentially located along Jagged1-expressing white matter tracts, which exhibited a demyelinated phenotype. The NOTCH1–SOX9–SOX2 positive-feedback loop controls GSC invasion along white matter tracts.
Categories: Neuroscience

Locus coeruleus activation enhances thalamic feature selectivity via norepinephrine regulation of intrathalamic circuit dynamics

17 December 2018 - 12:00am

Locus coeruleus activation enhances thalamic feature selectivity via norepinephrine regulation of intrathalamic circuit dynamics

Locus coeruleus activation enhances thalamic feature selectivity via norepinephrine regulation of intrathalamic circuit dynamics, Published online: 17 December 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0283-1

Locus coeruleus (LC) activation enhanced thalamic feature selectivity & perceptual performance. Electrophysiology and modeling suggest this improvement is due to reduction in Ca2+ T-channel activity by LC regulation of intrathalamic circuit dynamics.
Categories: Neuroscience

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