Nature Neuroscience

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Nature Neuroscience offers a unique mix of opinion and reviews alongside top-quality research papers. Published monthly, in print and online, the journal reflects the entire spectrum of neuroscience, from molecular to cognitive.
Updated: 2 hours 38 min ago

Author Correction: Circuit dissection of the role of somatostatin in itch and pain

19 April 2018 - 12:00am

Author Correction: Circuit dissection of the role of somatostatin in itch and pain

Author Correction: Circuit dissection of the role of somatostatin in itch and pain, Published online: 19 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0149-6

Author Correction: Circuit dissection of the role of somatostatin in itch and pain
Categories: Neuroscience

Cortical drive and thalamic feed-forward inhibition control thalamic output synchrony during absence seizures

16 April 2018 - 12:00am

Cortical drive and thalamic feed-forward inhibition control thalamic output synchrony during absence seizures

Cortical drive and thalamic feed-forward inhibition control thalamic output synchrony during absence seizures, Published online: 16 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0130-4

The authors demonstrate that the thalamic output during absence seizures is controlled and synchronized by a combination of excitation from the cortex and fast feedforward inhibition from reticular thalamus, with little involvement of thalamocortical neuron intrinsic mechanisms.
Categories: Neuroscience

The functional organization of cortical feedback inputs to primary visual cortex

16 April 2018 - 12:00am

The functional organization of cortical feedback inputs to primary visual cortex

The functional organization of cortical feedback inputs to primary visual cortex, Published online: 16 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0135-z

The authors measured the organization of cortical feedback inputs in mouse primary visual cortex. They found that the locations in visual cortex targeted by feedback axons relate to their tuning properties according to a simple geometrical rule.
Categories: Neuroscience

Heartless beat or beatless heart?

16 April 2018 - 12:00am

Heartless beat or beatless heart?

Heartless beat or beatless heart?, Published online: 16 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0140-2

Recurring bursts of thalamocortical cells were thought to be indispensable in driving absence seizures. A new study demonstrates that bursts from inhibitory thalamic reticular neurons are crucial instead. Reticular bursts are driven by cortical inputs and govern precise timing of thalamocortical cell activity during seizures.
Categories: Neuroscience

Locomotor activity modulates associative learning in mouse cerebellum

16 April 2018 - 12:00am

Locomotor activity modulates associative learning in mouse cerebellum

Locomotor activity modulates associative learning in mouse cerebellum, Published online: 16 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0129-x

Albergaria et al. demonstrate that ongoing locomotor activity modulates cerebellum-dependent associative learning. Optogenetic circuit dissection reveals a site of locomotor modulation within the mossy fiber pathway in the cerebellum.
Categories: Neuroscience

Encoding of error and learning to correct that error by the Purkinje cells of the cerebellum

16 April 2018 - 12:00am

Encoding of error and learning to correct that error by the Purkinje cells of the cerebellum

Encoding of error and learning to correct that error by the Purkinje cells of the cerebellum, Published online: 16 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0136-y

Herzfeld et al. examine how the cerebellum learns to correct movements. They find a timing code that links a Purkinje cell’s preference for error to its downstream projection on motor effectors that produce force to correct for that error.
Categories: Neuroscience

Yet another reason to walk instead of drive

16 April 2018 - 12:00am

Yet another reason to walk instead of drive

Yet another reason to walk instead of drive, Published online: 16 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0142-0

The behavioral state of a human or animal can dramatically alter how information is processed in its neural circuits. Albergaria et al. show that locomotion enhances the performance of a cerebellum-dependent behavior. The results provide new constraints on how information is represented there to support learning.
Categories: Neuroscience

Maternal IL-6 during pregnancy can be estimated from newborn brain connectivity and predicts future working memory in offspring

9 April 2018 - 12:00am

Maternal IL-6 during pregnancy can be estimated from newborn brain connectivity and predicts future working memory in offspring

Maternal IL-6 during pregnancy can be estimated from newborn brain connectivity and predicts future working memory in offspring, Published online: 09 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0128-y

The authors show that maternal inflammation during pregnancy, indexed by IL-6, can be estimated from the newborn brain connectome and predicts future working memory performance in offspring at two years of age.
Categories: Neuroscience

A hypothalamic circuit for the circadian control of aggression

9 April 2018 - 12:00am

A hypothalamic circuit for the circadian control of aggression

A hypothalamic circuit for the circadian control of aggression, Published online: 09 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0126-0

Todd et al. show a daily rhythm in aggression propensity in male mice and reveal a novel polysynaptic circuit within the hypothalamus by which the central circadian clock (the suprachiasmatic nucleus) influences neurons that regulate attack behavior.
Categories: Neuroscience

Baby brains reflect maternal inflammation

9 April 2018 - 12:00am

Baby brains reflect maternal inflammation

Baby brains reflect maternal inflammation, Published online: 09 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0134-0

Epidemiology and animal research have shown that the offspring of mothers who experience inflammation during pregnancy are at increased risk for psychopathology. A human study links a mother’s inflammation during pregnancy to her newborn’s functional brain organization and the child’s working memory two years later.
Categories: Neuroscience

Tbr1 instructs laminar patterning of retinal ganglion cell dendrites

9 April 2018 - 12:00am

Tbr1 instructs laminar patterning of retinal ganglion cell dendrites

Tbr1 instructs laminar patterning of retinal ganglion cell dendrites, Published online: 09 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0127-z

Specific retinal connectivity depends on laminar restriction of neuronal processes. The authors show that a single transcription factor specifies a common laminar identity in dendrites of four retinal cell types, albeit via cell-type-specific means.
Categories: Neuroscience

Building three-dimensional human brain organoids

28 March 2018 - 12:00am

Building three-dimensional human brain organoids

Building three-dimensional human brain organoids, Published online: 28 March 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0107-3

Building three-dimensional human brain organoids
Categories: Neuroscience

U-turns in the brain

28 March 2018 - 12:00am

U-turns in the brain

U-turns in the brain, Published online: 28 March 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0122-4

When making decisions, new information sometimes calls for a change of mind. New results indicate that regions of the prefrontal cortex play distinct roles in evaluating new evidence in light of a previous choice and translating the result of this evaluation process into an explicit report of one’s subjective confidence.
Categories: Neuroscience

CA1 pyramidal cell diversity enabling parallel information processing in the hippocampus

28 March 2018 - 12:00am

CA1 pyramidal cell diversity enabling parallel information processing in the hippocampus

CA1 pyramidal cell diversity enabling parallel information processing in the hippocampus, Published online: 28 March 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0118-0

In this Review the authors discuss recent findings supporting a framework in which the hippocampus comprises principal cell subpopulations forming nonuniform parallel circuits that are independently controlled and affect a variety of behaviors.
Categories: Neuroscience

Microglia’s heretical self-renewal

28 March 2018 - 12:00am

Microglia’s heretical self-renewal

Microglia’s heretical self-renewal, Published online: 28 March 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0123-3

The dogma that self-renewal is a defining characteristic of stem cells, which stemmed from studies of the hematopoietic hierarchy and quickly spread by analogy to all tissues, has been shattered by scientists pointing a microscope at the hematopoietic system itself. A microglial cell is clearly fully differentiated, and yet it self-renews.
Categories: Neuroscience

A brainstem bypass for spinal cord injury

19 March 2018 - 12:00am

A brainstem bypass for spinal cord injury

A brainstem bypass for spinal cord injury, Published online: 19 March 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0099-z

Spinal cord injury disrupts connectivity between the brain and the body. With electrochemical neuromodulation and intensive rehabilitation training, the cortex can functionally connect with spinal circuits below injury by relaying signals through the brainstem.
Categories: Neuroscience

Circuit dissection of the role of somatostatin in itch and pain

19 March 2018 - 12:00am

Circuit dissection of the role of somatostatin in itch and pain

Circuit dissection of the role of somatostatin in itch and pain, Published online: 19 March 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0119-z

Huang et al. demonstrate that somatostatin (Sst)-expressing primary afferents are pruriceptors. In spinal cord, they show that Sst potentiates itch by disinhibition involving dynorphin-expressing spinal neurons and that Sst also suppresses pain.
Categories: Neuroscience

Myelin remodeling through experience-dependent oligodendrogenesis in the adult somatosensory cortex

19 March 2018 - 12:00am

Myelin remodeling through experience-dependent oligodendrogenesis in the adult somatosensory cortex

Myelin remodeling through experience-dependent oligodendrogenesis in the adult somatosensory cortex, Published online: 19 March 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0121-5

Oligodendrocytes are generated in adult somatosensory cortex, but few successfully integrate to form myelin. Sensory enrichment alters myelination patterns by enhancing oligodendrogenesis rather than altering the length of existing myelin sheaths.
Categories: Neuroscience

Publisher Correction: Dysregulation of the epigenetic landscape of normal aging in Alzheimer’s disease

19 March 2018 - 12:00am

Publisher Correction: Dysregulation of the epigenetic landscape of normal aging in Alzheimer’s disease

Publisher Correction: Dysregulation of the epigenetic landscape of normal aging in Alzheimer’s disease, Published online: 19 March 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0124-2

Publisher Correction: Dysregulation of the epigenetic landscape of normal aging in Alzheimer’s disease
Categories: Neuroscience

Cortico–reticulo–spinal circuit reorganization enables functional recovery after severe spinal cord contusion

19 March 2018 - 12:00am

Cortico–reticulo–spinal circuit reorganization enables functional recovery after severe spinal cord contusion

Cortico–reticulo–spinal circuit reorganization enables functional recovery after severe spinal cord contusion, Published online: 19 March 2018; doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0093-5

Severe spinal cord contusions interrupt all corticospinal input. Neuroprosthetic rehabilitation rerouted cortical command through residual reticulospinal pathways, mediating motor cortex dependent recovery of locomotion in otherwise paralyzed rats.
Categories: Neuroscience

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