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Sodium in the microenvironment regulates immune responses and tissue homeostasis

15 January 2019 - 12:00am

Sodium in the microenvironment regulates immune responses and tissue homeostasis

Sodium in the microenvironment regulates immune responses and tissue homeostasis, Published online: 15 January 2019; doi:10.1038/s41577-018-0113-4

Dietary salt can have direct effects on immune cell subsets as well as indirect effects through intestinal dysbiosis. We are beginning to appreciate that high salt diets not only are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease but also have marked effects on immune responses.

Neuronal itaconate restricts viral infection

15 January 2019 - 12:00am

Neuronal itaconate restricts viral infection

Neuronal itaconate restricts viral infection, Published online: 15 January 2019; doi:10.1038/s41577-019-0121-z

Zika virus infection of neurons triggers a cell death-independent pathway through the necroptotic kinases RIPK1 and RIPK3 that alters cellular metabolism to suppress viral replication.

DNA-stimulated cell death: implications for host defence, inflammatory diseases and cancer

15 January 2019 - 12:00am

DNA-stimulated cell death: implications for host defence, inflammatory diseases and cancer

DNA-stimulated cell death: implications for host defence, inflammatory diseases and cancer, Published online: 15 January 2019; doi:10.1038/s41577-018-0117-0

This Review explains how innate sensors of DNA activate different types of programmed cell death. The authors consider the relevance of these cell death pathways during infection and in inflammatory diseases.

Containment strategy

15 January 2019 - 12:00am

Containment strategy

Containment strategy, Published online: 15 January 2019; doi:10.1038/s41577-019-0122-y

TRM cells promote a melanoma–immune equilibrium that contains melanoma cells in the epidermis and prevents cancer progression.

Organismal immunometabolism: advances in both directions

11 January 2019 - 12:00am

Organismal immunometabolism: advances in both directions

Organismal immunometabolism: advances in both directions, Published online: 11 January 2019; doi:10.1038/s41577-018-0118-z

The field of immunometabolism (both on the cellular as well as on the organismal level) is advancing rapidly. This article highlights several studies from 2018 that examine how immune cells can regulate systemic metabolism, as well as studies of the impact of organismal metabolism on the immune system in conditions such as obesity and cancer.

CAR T cell therapy: inroads to response and resistance

10 January 2019 - 12:00am

CAR T cell therapy: inroads to response and resistance

CAR T cell therapy: inroads to response and resistance, Published online: 10 January 2019; doi:10.1038/s41577-018-0119-y

Several clinical studies in 2018 documented the potency of therapies based on T cells with chimeric antigen receptors (CAR T cells), but also revealed mechanisms of resistance. These insights may facilitate the design of improved CAR T cell therapies for B cell malignancies and beyond.

21st century natural killers

9 January 2019 - 12:00am

21st century natural killers

21st century natural killers, Published online: 09 January 2019; doi:10.1038/s41577-019-0120-0

Cristina Tato describes a 2013 study that used mass cytometry to investigate the receptor repertoire of natural killer (NK) cells, bringing to light new questions regarding NK cell maturation, functionality and memory potential.

Novel connections and precision approaches

8 January 2019 - 12:00am

Novel connections and precision approaches

Novel connections and precision approaches, Published online: 08 January 2019; doi:10.1038/s41577-018-0114-3

Recent research in mucosal immunology has uncovered novel lines of communication between the mucosal immune system and other cellular and metabolic pathways. Given the complexity of these networks, new precision approaches are being developed to dissect the contribution of specific pathways or selected microorganisms.

Calcium signalling in T cells

8 January 2019 - 12:00am

Calcium signalling in T cells

Calcium signalling in T cells, Published online: 08 January 2019; doi:10.1038/s41577-018-0110-7

Regulated calcium signalling, in particular downstream of the T cell receptor, is crucial for many T cell effector functions. This Review provides an overview of the numerous membrane and organellar calcium-permeable channels that are coordinated to fine-tune T cell immunity.

Poised plasticity of skin T cells

4 January 2019 - 12:00am

Poised plasticity of skin T cells

Poised plasticity of skin T cells, Published online: 04 January 2019; doi:10.1038/s41577-018-0116-1

Commensal-specific T cells in the skin have built-in flexibility. They are pre-committed to a type 17 programme but are poised to produce type 2 cytokines following exposure to inflammatory mediators or tissue injury.

Microglia take centre stage in neurodegenerative disease

4 January 2019 - 12:00am

Microglia take centre stage in neurodegenerative disease

Microglia take centre stage in neurodegenerative disease, Published online: 04 January 2019; doi:10.1038/s41577-018-0112-5

After many years of being largely neglected in neurodegenerative disease, the past few years have seen a turning point in the field’s view on the impact of microglia in neurological disorders.

Deciphering the gut–brain link in NEC

3 January 2019 - 12:00am

Deciphering the gut–brain link in NEC

Deciphering the gut–brain link in NEC, Published online: 03 January 2019; doi:10.1038/s41577-018-0115-2

Infant NEC is associated with high mortality and brain injury. This study sheds light on the connections between gut and brain pathology and shows that microglia-targeted dendrimers, coupled to antioxidants, can protect from brain injury in a NEC mouse model.

Systems-level patterns emerge

3 January 2019 - 12:00am

Systems-level patterns emerge

Systems-level patterns emerge, Published online: 03 January 2019; doi:10.1038/s41577-018-0106-3

Our knowledge of how the immune system changes with age has benefitted from a growing appreciation of the importance of systems-level analyses in humans. We are now beginning to uncover the global patterns of immune system development and decline in the young and the elderly.

Trans-Golgi network breaks away to activate NLRP3

2 January 2019 - 12:00am

Trans-Golgi network breaks away to activate NLRP3

Trans-Golgi network breaks away to activate NLRP3, Published online: 02 January 2019; doi:10.1038/s41577-018-0111-6

NLRP3 activators cause disassembly of the trans-Golgi network, and the dispersed trans-Golgi network serves as a scaffold for NLRP3 inflammasome assembly and activation.

B cells still front and centre in immunology

2 January 2019 - 12:00am

B cells still front and centre in immunology

B cells still front and centre in immunology, Published online: 02 January 2019; doi:10.1038/s41577-018-0107-2

The study of B cell biology is a mature field, but highlights from the past year remind us that there are still many exciting and unexpected things to be discovered in terms of B cell responses to antigen, germinal centres and plasma cells.

The signposts and winding roads to immunity and inflammation

2 January 2019 - 12:00am

The signposts and winding roads to immunity and inflammation

The signposts and winding roads to immunity and inflammation, Published online: 02 January 2019; doi:10.1038/s41577-018-0108-1

The field of innate immunity has been rapidly evolving and expanding its horizons during the past few years. 2018 was no exception, with the publication of several ground-breaking studies that bring into light new activators, regulators and signalling networks that drive innate immune responses and inflammation.

How to train an innate response

18 December 2018 - 12:00am

How to train an innate response

How to train an innate response, Published online: 18 December 2018; doi:10.1038/s41577-018-0109-0

The mechanism of epigenetic modification of primed immune genes during β-glucan-induced trained immunity is shown to involve the function of the long non-coding RNA UMLILO within topologically associating domains of chromosome loops.

Advancing an HIV vaccine; advancing vaccinology

18 December 2018 - 12:00am

Advancing an HIV vaccine; advancing vaccinology

Advancing an HIV vaccine; advancing vaccinology, Published online: 18 December 2018; doi:10.1038/s41577-018-0103-6

The generation of an HIV vaccine remains the holy grail for eliminating HIV infection worldwide. Major advances in 2018 centred on sequential multi-immunogen strategies that are designed to induce broadly neutralizing antibodies, identifying new targets and defining new approaches to immunogen evaluation.

Cardioimmunology of arrhythmias: the role of autoimmune and inflammatory cardiac channelopathies

14 December 2018 - 12:00am

Cardioimmunology of arrhythmias: the role of autoimmune and inflammatory cardiac channelopathies

Cardioimmunology of arrhythmias: the role of autoimmune and inflammatory cardiac channelopathies, Published online: 14 December 2018; doi:10.1038/s41577-018-0098-z

Cardioimmunology of arrhythmias: the role of autoimmune and inflammatory cardiac channelopathies

Reply to ‘Cardioimmunology of arrhythmias: the role of autoimmune and inflammatory cardiac channelopathies’

14 December 2018 - 12:00am

Reply to ‘Cardioimmunology of arrhythmias: the role of autoimmune and inflammatory cardiac channelopathies’

Reply to ‘Cardioimmunology of arrhythmias: the role of autoimmune and inflammatory cardiac channelopathies’, Published online: 14 December 2018; doi:10.1038/s41577-018-0099-y

Reply to ‘Cardioimmunology of arrhythmias: the role of autoimmune and inflammatory cardiac channelopathies’

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