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Histone deacetylase function in CD4<sup>+</sup> T cells

18 July 2018 - 12:00am

Histone deacetylase function in CD4+ T cells

Histone deacetylase function in CD4<sup>+</sup> T cells, Published online: 18 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41577-018-0037-z

Histone deacetylases (HDACs) and histone acetyltransferases mediate reversible acetylation of histones and many other non-histone proteins to regulate gene expression and protein function. Here, the authors describe the myriad activities of HDACs in CD4+ T cells and the potential use of HDAC inhibitors as therapeutics for immune-mediated diseases.

Chance favours the prepared mind

17 July 2018 - 12:00am

Chance favours the prepared mind

Chance favours the prepared mind, Published online: 17 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41577-018-0043-1

Jeffrey Bluestone describes a 1987 study of anergic T cells by Marc Jenkins and Ron Schwartz that altered his thoughts about T cell tolerance and eventually gave birth to the field of checkpoint inhibition.

Quorum sensing in the immune system

13 July 2018 - 12:00am

Quorum sensing in the immune system

Quorum sensing in the immune system, Published online: 13 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41577-018-0040-4

Quorum sensing is the regulation of gene expression programmes in response to changes in population density. It is probably best recognized as a mechanism through which bacterial communities can synchronize behaviours, such as biofilm formation and bioluminescence. This Comment article highlights the emerging evidence suggesting that quorum sensing also contributes to the regulation of immune cell responses.

P2RX7 keeps memory T cells fit

10 July 2018 - 12:00am

P2RX7 keeps memory T cells fit

P2RX7 keeps memory T cells fit, Published online: 10 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41577-018-0041-3

The ATP sensor P2RX7 maintains mitochondrial function in long-lived memory CD8+ T cells.

Tumour decides immune cell ins and outs

9 July 2018 - 12:00am

Tumour decides immune cell ins and outs

Tumour decides immune cell ins and outs, Published online: 09 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41577-018-0038-y

Tumour cell-intrinsic factors determine the infiltration of T cells into tumours and their response to immunotherapy.

RFX7 keeps killers quiescent

6 July 2018 - 12:00am

RFX7 keeps killers quiescent

RFX7 keeps killers quiescent, Published online: 06 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41577-018-0039-x

The metabolism and maintenance of natural killer (NK) cells is regulated by a previously uncharacterized transcription factor called regulatory factor X7 (RFX7).

Neuroendocrine cells amplify asthma

3 July 2018 - 12:00am

Neuroendocrine cells amplify asthma

Neuroendocrine cells amplify asthma, Published online: 03 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41577-018-0036-0

Pulmonary neuroendocrine cells communicate with type 2 innate lymphoid cells and goblet cells to promote allergic asthma.

Tissue-specific functions of invariant natural killer T cells

2 July 2018 - 12:00am

Tissue-specific functions of invariant natural killer T cells

Tissue-specific functions of invariant natural killer T cells, Published online: 02 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41577-018-0034-2

Here, the authors examine the functions of different subsets of invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells. They explain how iNKT cells contribute to tissue homeostasis and protection against infection, with a focus on the liver, intestine, lungs and adipose tissue.

Viperin breaks viral chains

27 June 2018 - 12:00am

Viperin breaks viral chains

Viperin breaks viral chains, Published online: 27 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41577-018-0035-1

The antiviral protein viperin catalyses the production of a small molecule inhibitor of viral RNA polymerization.

T<sub>H</sub>9 cells tackle advanced tumours

26 June 2018 - 12:00am

TH9 cells tackle advanced tumours

T<sub>H</sub>9 cells tackle advanced tumours, Published online: 26 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41577-018-0032-4

CD4+ TH9 cells show superior activity in adoptive cell transfer approach in melanoma mouse model.

Publisher Correction: To respond or not to respond — a personal perspective of intestinal tolerance

22 June 2018 - 12:00am

Publisher Correction: To respond or not to respond — a personal perspective of intestinal tolerance

Publisher Correction: To respond or not to respond — a personal perspective of intestinal tolerance, Published online: 22 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41577-018-0033-3

Publisher Correction: To respond or not to respond — a personal perspective of intestinal tolerance

Author Correction: Integrating oncolytic viruses in combination cancer immunotherapy

21 June 2018 - 12:00am

Author Correction: Integrating oncolytic viruses in combination cancer immunotherapy

Author Correction: Integrating oncolytic viruses in combination cancer immunotherapy, Published online: 21 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41577-018-0031-5

Author Correction: Integrating oncolytic viruses in combination cancer immunotherapy

IFNγ: signalling, epigenetics and roles in immunity, metabolism, disease and cancer immunotherapy

19 June 2018 - 12:00am

IFNγ: signalling, epigenetics and roles in immunity, metabolism, disease and cancer immunotherapy

IFNγ: signalling, epigenetics and roles in immunity, metabolism, disease and cancer immunotherapy, Published online: 19 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41577-018-0029-z

Lionel Ivashkiv discusses new insight into the functions of IFNγ and summarizes our current understanding of IFNγ receptor signalling. In particular, the author focuses on recent studies on how IFNγ influences autoimmunity, immunometabolism, neurological diseases and cancer immunotherapy.

Calming the cytokine storm

13 June 2018 - 12:00am

Calming the cytokine storm

Calming the cytokine storm, Published online: 13 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41577-018-0030-6

Two papers show that combining IL-1 blockade with chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy for cancer can prevent the induction of a potentially lethal ‘cytokine storm’.

Immunological mechanisms of human resistance to persistent <i>Mycobacterium tuberculosis</i> infection

12 June 2018 - 12:00am

Immunological mechanisms of human resistance to persistent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection

Immunological mechanisms of human resistance to persistent <i>Mycobacterium tuberculosis</i> infection, Published online: 12 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41577-018-0025-3

Resisters are individuals who show resistance to infection despite long-term, high exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In this Review, Simmons and colleagues discuss potential mechanisms underlying this resistance, such as those mediated by macrophages, T cells and B cells, and how an understanding of these mechanisms might aid in the development of therapies for tuberculosis.

Antibodies and tuberculosis: finally coming of age?

5 June 2018 - 12:00am

Antibodies and tuberculosis: finally coming of age?

Antibodies and tuberculosis: finally coming of age?, Published online: 05 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41577-018-0028-0

Most candidate vaccines for tuberculosis are designed to boost cell-mediated immunity to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the intracellular bacterium that causes the disease. This Opinion article considers the rationale for also harnessing antibody-mediated immunity in future tuberculosis vaccines.

The inflammasome starts rolling

1 June 2018 - 12:00am

The inflammasome starts rolling

The inflammasome starts rolling, Published online: 01 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41577-018-0027-1

Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti describes a 2002 study by Jürg Tschopp and colleagues that first described the multiprotein, caspase-activating inflammasome complex that drives the maturation and secretion of IL-1β.

High-fibre diet beats flu

25 May 2018 - 12:00am

High-fibre diet beats flu

High-fibre diet beats flu, Published online: 25 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41577-018-0024-4

A high-fibre diet protects against influenza virus infection by limiting lung immunopathology and enhancing antiviral T cell responses.

Cheating cell death

25 May 2018 - 12:00am

Cheating cell death

Cheating cell death, Published online: 25 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41577-018-0026-2

The long-term survival of HIV-1-infected CD4+ T cells is shown to be controlled by the anti-apoptotic protein BIRC5 and its upstream regulator OX40, which suggests new therapeutic targets to reduce the size of the viral reservoir.

T cell balancing act in TB

24 May 2018 - 12:00am

T cell balancing act in TB

T cell balancing act in TB, Published online: 24 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41577-018-0023-5

CYPD regulates the host response to tuberculosis infection through modulating T cell metabolism.

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