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Specificity for HCMV strains

19 April 2018 - 12:00am

Specificity for HCMV strains

Specificity for HCMV strains, Published online: 19 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41577-018-0010-x

Strain-specific recognition of different UL40 peptides determines the proliferation and activation of NKG2C+ NK cells during HCMV infection.

Immunometabolism: Old drug, new trick

16 April 2018 - 12:00am

Immunometabolism: Old drug, new trick

Immunometabolism: Old drug, new trick, Published online: 16 April 2018; doi:10.1038/nri.2018.29

The immunomodulatory drug dimethyl fumarate blocks GAPDH and aerobic glycolysis in activated immune cells.

Clocking in to immunity

16 April 2018 - 12:00am

Clocking in to immunity

Clocking in to immunity, Published online: 16 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41577-018-0008-4

This Review considers the importance of the core circadian clock for regulating both innate and adaptive immune cell responses. The authors consider the implications for vaccination and other clinical strategies, highlighting the emerging field of chrono-immunotherapy.

An early history of T cell-mediated cytotoxicity

16 April 2018 - 12:00am

An early history of T cell-mediated cytotoxicity

An early history of T cell-mediated cytotoxicity, Published online: 16 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41577-018-0009-3

This Timeline looks back at the past 60 years of fundamental research into the mechanisms of T cell-mediated cytotoxicity, which has culminated in recent interest in the therapeutic manipulation of cytotoxic T cell responses for cancer immunotherapy.

Understanding the drivers of MHC restriction of T cell receptors

10 April 2018 - 12:00am

Understanding the drivers of MHC restriction of T cell receptors

Understanding the drivers of MHC restriction of T cell receptors, Published online: 10 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41577-018-0007-5

Jamie Rossjohn and colleagues review the structural and functional data that provide insight into the MHC restriction of T cell receptors. They discuss the non-mutually exclusive contributions of intrinsic germline-encoded motifs and developmental selection to MHC restriction.

Immunometabolism: Itaconate helps KEAP1's cool

9 April 2018 - 12:00am

Immunometabolism: Itaconate helps KEAP1's cool

Immunometabolism: Itaconate helps KEAP1's cool, Published online: 09 April 2018; doi:10.1038/nri.2018.27

Itaconate alkylates KEAP1 to regulate NRF2 activity and induce an anti-inflammatory response in macrophages

Discovering transcriptional signatures of disease for diagnosis versus mechanism

9 April 2018 - 12:00am

Discovering transcriptional signatures of disease for diagnosis versus mechanism

Discovering transcriptional signatures of disease for diagnosis versus mechanism, Published online: 09 April 2018; doi:10.1038/nri.2018.26

Transcriptional signatures of disease can be used for diagnosis or to gain insight into disease mechanisms. This Comment article discusses the different sets of criteria that should be considered for the optimal design of investigations addressing these two purposes, using examples from the study of tuberculosis.

Targeting cytokines to treat asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

6 April 2018 - 12:00am

Targeting cytokines to treat asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Targeting cytokines to treat asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Published online: 06 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41577-018-0006-6

Drugs that target the cytokines that drive asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease offer relief to some people with these diseases. However, as discussed here, further success will require a better understanding of the disease mechanisms and selection of the right drug for the right patient.

Allergy: An alarmin cut

4 April 2018 - 12:00am

Allergy: An alarmin cut

Allergy: An alarmin cut, Published online: 04 April 2018; doi:10.1038/nri.2018.23

Proteolytic cleavage of IL-33 by environmental allergens induces rapid induction of allergic type 2 inflammation.

Macrophages: Running on empty

4 April 2018 - 12:00am

Macrophages: Running on empty

Macrophages: Running on empty, Published online: 04 April 2018; doi:10.1038/nri.2018.25

NRP1-deficient macrophages show impaired fatty acid oxidation.

Germinal centres: An exit strategy for B cells

4 April 2018 - 12:00am

Germinal centres: An exit strategy for B cells

Germinal centres: An exit strategy for B cells, Published online: 04 April 2018; doi:10.1038/nri.2018.24

The ubiquitin ligase activity of CBL proteins controls the exit of B cells from the germinal centre to become plasma cells.

C-type lectins in immunity and homeostasis

26 March 2018 - 12:00am

C-type lectins in immunity and homeostasis

C-type lectins in immunity and homeostasis, Published online: 26 March 2018; doi:10.1038/s41577-018-0004-8

Recently discovered roles for C-type lectins in development, homeostasis, cell death, cancer and autoimmune and inflammatory diseases extend the functions of this superfamily beyond their well-recognized involvement in antimicrobial responses.

Mucosal immunology: Glucose not good for the gut

21 March 2018 - 12:00am

Mucosal immunology: Glucose not good for the gut

Mucosal immunology: Glucose not good for the gut, Published online: 21 March 2018; doi:10.1038/nri.2018.22

Hyperglycaemia directly mediates dysfunction of the intestinal epithelial barrier in obesity, leading to increased translocation of microbial products.

Nonhuman primate models of human viral infections

19 March 2018 - 12:00am

Nonhuman primate models of human viral infections

Nonhuman primate models of human viral infections, Published online: 19 March 2018; doi:10.1038/s41577-018-0005-7

Nonhuman primates (NHPs) are increasingly used as models of human viral infections. Here, Estes and colleagues introduce different NHP models, summarize the similarities and differences between human and NHP immune systems and discuss important examples of human viruses that can be modelled in NHPs.

A cold-blooded view of adaptive immunity

19 March 2018 - 12:00am

A cold-blooded view of adaptive immunity

A cold-blooded view of adaptive immunity, Published online: 19 March 2018; doi:10.1038/s41577-018-0003-9

Adaptive immunity arose 500 million years ago in cold-blooded vertebrates. Here, Martin Flajnik discusses how recent discoveries in fish, amphibians and reptiles have improved our understanding of the origins and functions of adaptive immune systems.

Neuroimmunology: No pain, all gain

16 March 2018 - 12:00am

Neuroimmunology: No pain, all gain

Neuroimmunology: No pain, all gain, Published online: 16 March 2018; doi:10.1038/nri.2018.21

Sensory neurons in the lungs suppress immune responses to bacterial lung infections.

A novel genetic architecture of infectious diseases

16 March 2018 - 12:00am

A novel genetic architecture of infectious diseases

A novel genetic architecture of infectious diseases, Published online: 16 March 2018; doi:10.1038/nri.2018.19

Laurent Abel describes two landmark studies from 1996 that described the genetic susceptibility of children to severe mycobacterial infections.

Immunotherapy: Tear down this wall

16 March 2018 - 12:00am

Immunotherapy: Tear down this wall

Immunotherapy: Tear down this wall, Published online: 16 March 2018; doi:10.1038/nri.2018.20

Activation of TGFβ signalling in invasive margins of metastatic tumours can contribute to T cell exclusion and reduced immune checkpoint therapy response.

The full spectrum of human naive T cells

8 March 2018 - 12:00am

The full spectrum of human naive T cells

The full spectrum of human naive T cells, Published online: 08 March 2018; doi:10.1038/s41577-018-0001-y

Evidence is increasing that naive T cells are heterogeneous in phenotype, function, dynamics and differentiation status. Here, van den Broek et al. provide a revised view of the naive T cell compartment and then discuss the implications for ageing, neonatal immunity and T cell reconstitution following haematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Antibodies: Septic shock absorbers

5 March 2018 - 12:00am

Antibodies: Septic shock absorbers

Antibodies: Septic shock absorbers, Published online: 05 March 2018; doi:10.1038/nri.2018.17

Gut commensals induce systemic IgA responses that protect mice against lethal sepsis.

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