Nature Rev. Imm.
Specificity for HCMV strains
Specificity for HCMV strains, Published online: 19 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41577-018-0010-xStrain-specific recognition of different UL40 peptides determines the proliferation and activation of NKG2C+ NK cells during HCMV infection.
Immunometabolism: Old drug, new trick
Immunometabolism: Old drug, new trick, Published online: 16 April 2018; doi:10.1038/nri.2018.29The immunomodulatory drug dimethyl fumarate blocks GAPDH and aerobic glycolysis in activated immune cells.
Clocking in to immunity
Clocking in to immunity, Published online: 16 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41577-018-0008-4This Review considers the importance of the core circadian clock for regulating both innate and adaptive immune cell responses. The authors consider the implications for vaccination and other clinical strategies, highlighting the emerging field of chrono-immunotherapy.
An early history of T cell-mediated cytotoxicity
An early history of T cell-mediated cytotoxicity, Published online: 16 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41577-018-0009-3This Timeline looks back at the past 60 years of fundamental research into the mechanisms of T cell-mediated cytotoxicity, which has culminated in recent interest in the therapeutic manipulation of cytotoxic T cell responses for cancer immunotherapy.
Understanding the drivers of MHC restriction of T cell receptors
Understanding the drivers of MHC restriction of T cell receptors, Published online: 10 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41577-018-0007-5Jamie Rossjohn and colleagues review the structural and functional data that provide insight into the MHC restriction of T cell receptors. They discuss the non-mutually exclusive contributions of intrinsic germline-encoded motifs and developmental selection to MHC restriction.
Immunometabolism: Itaconate helps KEAP1's cool
Immunometabolism: Itaconate helps KEAP1's cool, Published online: 09 April 2018; doi:10.1038/nri.2018.27Itaconate alkylates KEAP1 to regulate NRF2 activity and induce an anti-inflammatory response in macrophages
Discovering transcriptional signatures of disease for diagnosis versus mechanism
Discovering transcriptional signatures of disease for diagnosis versus mechanism, Published online: 09 April 2018; doi:10.1038/nri.2018.26Transcriptional signatures of disease can be used for diagnosis or to gain insight into disease mechanisms. This Comment article discusses the different sets of criteria that should be considered for the optimal design of investigations addressing these two purposes, using examples from the study of tuberculosis.
Targeting cytokines to treat asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Targeting cytokines to treat asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Published online: 06 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41577-018-0006-6Drugs that target the cytokines that drive asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease offer relief to some people with these diseases. However, as discussed here, further success will require a better understanding of the disease mechanisms and selection of the right drug for the right patient.
Allergy: An alarmin cut
Allergy: An alarmin cut, Published online: 04 April 2018; doi:10.1038/nri.2018.23Proteolytic cleavage of IL-33 by environmental allergens induces rapid induction of allergic type 2 inflammation.
Macrophages: Running on empty
Macrophages: Running on empty, Published online: 04 April 2018; doi:10.1038/nri.2018.25NRP1-deficient macrophages show impaired fatty acid oxidation.
Germinal centres: An exit strategy for B cells
Germinal centres: An exit strategy for B cells, Published online: 04 April 2018; doi:10.1038/nri.2018.24The ubiquitin ligase activity of CBL proteins controls the exit of B cells from the germinal centre to become plasma cells.
C-type lectins in immunity and homeostasis
C-type lectins in immunity and homeostasis, Published online: 26 March 2018; doi:10.1038/s41577-018-0004-8Recently discovered roles for C-type lectins in development, homeostasis, cell death, cancer and autoimmune and inflammatory diseases extend the functions of this superfamily beyond their well-recognized involvement in antimicrobial responses.
Mucosal immunology: Glucose not good for the gut
Mucosal immunology: Glucose not good for the gut, Published online: 21 March 2018; doi:10.1038/nri.2018.22Hyperglycaemia directly mediates dysfunction of the intestinal epithelial barrier in obesity, leading to increased translocation of microbial products.
Nonhuman primate models of human viral infections
Nonhuman primate models of human viral infections, Published online: 19 March 2018; doi:10.1038/s41577-018-0005-7Nonhuman primates (NHPs) are increasingly used as models of human viral infections. Here, Estes and colleagues introduce different NHP models, summarize the similarities and differences between human and NHP immune systems and discuss important examples of human viruses that can be modelled in NHPs.
A cold-blooded view of adaptive immunity
A cold-blooded view of adaptive immunity, Published online: 19 March 2018; doi:10.1038/s41577-018-0003-9Adaptive immunity arose 500 million years ago in cold-blooded vertebrates. Here, Martin Flajnik discusses how recent discoveries in fish, amphibians and reptiles have improved our understanding of the origins and functions of adaptive immune systems.
Neuroimmunology: No pain, all gain
Neuroimmunology: No pain, all gain, Published online: 16 March 2018; doi:10.1038/nri.2018.21Sensory neurons in the lungs suppress immune responses to bacterial lung infections.
A novel genetic architecture of infectious diseases
A novel genetic architecture of infectious diseases, Published online: 16 March 2018; doi:10.1038/nri.2018.19Laurent Abel describes two landmark studies from 1996 that described the genetic susceptibility of children to severe mycobacterial infections.
Immunotherapy: Tear down this wall
Immunotherapy: Tear down this wall, Published online: 16 March 2018; doi:10.1038/nri.2018.20Activation of TGFβ signalling in invasive margins of metastatic tumours can contribute to T cell exclusion and reduced immune checkpoint therapy response.
The full spectrum of human naive T cells
The full spectrum of human naive T cells, Published online: 08 March 2018; doi:10.1038/s41577-018-0001-yEvidence is increasing that naive T cells are heterogeneous in phenotype, function, dynamics and differentiation status. Here, van den Broek et al. provide a revised view of the naive T cell compartment and then discuss the implications for ageing, neonatal immunity and T cell reconstitution following haematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Antibodies: Septic shock absorbers
Antibodies: Septic shock absorbers, Published online: 05 March 2018; doi:10.1038/nri.2018.17Gut commensals induce systemic IgA responses that protect mice against lethal sepsis.