Nature Rev. Cancer
Known and novel roles of the MET oncogene in cancer: a coherent approach to targeted therapy
Known and novel roles of the <i>MET</i> oncogene in cancer: a coherent approach to targeted therapy, Published online: 19 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41568-018-0002-yThe MET oncogene encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase with pleiotropic functions. In this Review, Comoglio et al. describe the known and novel MET-mediated biological responses in cancer and discuss how clinical trials testing anti-MET therapies should be designed with careful consideration of these oncogenic functions of MET.
Stop the shedding
Stop the shedding, Published online: 17 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41568-018-0012-9Ferrari de Andrade et al. find that monoclonal antibodies that prevent shedding of MICA and MICB from tumour cells can restore antitumour immunity by natural killer cells.
Structural underpinnings of oestrogen receptor mutations in endocrine therapy resistance
Structural underpinnings of oestrogen receptor mutations in endocrine therapy resistance, Published online: 16 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41568-018-0001-zThis Opinion article highlights how activating mutations in the gene encoding oestrogen receptor-α (ERα), a major driver in breast cancer, undermine structural features of wild-type ERα that maintain the ‘off-state’ in the absence of oestrogens, thus making ERα constitutively active and endocrine-therapy resistant.
Take a left here
Take a left here, Published online: 16 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41568-018-0011-xWhether lymph node metastases can be a source of cancer cells for distant metastases has been debated. Now, two studies have used mouse models to show that tumour cells can colonize distant organs by invading lymph node blood vessels.
Revisiting the role of ABC transporters in multidrug-resistant cancer
Revisiting the role of ABC transporters in multidrug-resistant cancer, Published online: 11 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41568-018-0005-8This Opinion argues for a new look at the role of ABC transporters in cancer multidrug resistance to push forward their clinical application as biomarkers and as targets in combination therapies in order to improve anticancer drug efficiency.
Too many targets, not enough patients: rethinking neuroblastoma clinical trials
Too many targets, not enough patients: rethinking neuroblastoma clinical trials, Published online: 09 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41568-018-0003-xThis Perspective provides an update on targeted therapy development for neuroblastoma and proposes that clinical trial design needs to be rethought in order to provide rigorous, evidence-based assessment of these new therapies in this rare and often deadly paediatric tumour.
Breast cancer: Obesity — tipping the scales of resistance
Breast cancer: Obesity — tipping the scales of resistance, Published online: 06 April 2018; doi:10.1038/nrc.2018.31Using clinical tissue specimens and mouse models of breast cancer, Incio et al. show that obesity promotes the upregulation of interleukin-6 and fibroblast growth factor 2 in the tumour microenvironment, which confer resistance to anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy.
Mechanisms of cancer resistance in long-lived mammals
Mechanisms of cancer resistance in long-lived mammals, Published online: 05 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41568-018-0004-9In this Opinion article, Seluanov et al. discuss the diverse mechanisms of cancer resistance found in long-lived mammals and argue that studies of unconventional long-lived and cancer-resistant animal species could provide breakthroughs in cancer therapy and prevention.
Breast cancer: External communication
Breast cancer: External communication, Published online: 03 April 2018; doi:10.1038/nrc.2018.30In a new study, researchers show that basal-like breast cancer can be converted into the luminal subtype by inhibiting platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-CC signalling in the tumour microenvironment, thereby potentially broadening treatment options for oestrogen receptor-negative breast cancer patients.
Leukaemia: Powers of prediction
Leukaemia: Powers of prediction, Published online: 03 April 2018; doi:10.1038/nrc.2018.28Good et al. use deep phenotypic single-cell analyses and machine learning to identify developmentally dependent cell signalling states in B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia that are predictive of relapse.
Pancreatic cancer: The COMPASS shows the way
Pancreatic cancer: The COMPASS shows the way, Published online: 03 April 2018; doi:10.1038/nrc.2018.29Deregulation of the COMPASS-like complex, via loss of KDM6A in females and loss of both KDM6A and its Y chromosome homologue UTY in males, is important for activation of oncogene-associated super-enhancers and the development of pancreatic adenocarcinoma of the squamous subtype.
Immunosurveillance: Presentation skills
Immunosurveillance: Presentation skills, Published online: 22 March 2018; doi:10.1038/nrc.2018.24Immunosurveillance: Presentation skills
Immunotherapy: iPSC-based vaccines provoke a response
Immunotherapy: iPSC-based vaccines provoke a response, Published online: 22 March 2018; doi:10.1038/nrc.2018.26Immunotherapy: iPSC-based vaccines provoke a response
Immunotherapy: A therapeutic reservoir
Immunotherapy: A therapeutic reservoir, Published online: 22 March 2018; doi:10.1038/nrc.2018.23Wang, C., Wang, J. et al. show that local injection of a hydrogel scaffold degraded by reactive oxygen species in the tumour microenvironment releases chemotherapy and an immune checkpoint inhibitor with kinetics that increase antitumour responses.
Metastasis: Go with the flow
Metastasis: Go with the flow, Published online: 22 March 2018; doi:10.1038/nrc.2018.25Metastasis: Go with the flow
Targeted therapy: Tipping the splicing balance to kill cancer cells
Targeted therapy: Tipping the splicing balance to kill cancer cells, Published online: 22 March 2018; doi:10.1038/nrc.2018.27A paper in Nature Medicine describes a novel, orally available splicing modulator that preferentially kills cancer cells with mutations in splicing factors in culture and in mouse models.
Cell motility in cancer invasion and metastasis: insights from simple model organisms
Cell motility in cancer invasion and metastasis: insights from simple model organisms, Published online: 16 March 2018; doi:10.1038/nrc.2018.15In this Review, Stuelten et al. outline insights with relevance to human cancer invasion and metastasis that have come from the study of cell motility in non-mammalian model organisms.
Non-angiogenic tumours and their influence on cancer biology
Non-angiogenic tumours and their influence on cancer biology, Published online: 09 March 2018; doi:10.1038/nrc.2018.14In this Opinion article, Donnem et al. outline the evidence for non-angiogenic tumours, which use pre-existing blood vessels to support tumour growth, and discuss the studies that are beginning to define their unique biology.
Immunotherapy: Tear down this wall
Immunotherapy: Tear down this wall, Published online: 09 March 2018; doi:10.1038/nrc.2018.22Activation of TGFβ signalling in invasive margins of metastatic tumours can contribute to T cell exclusion and reduced immune checkpoint therapy response. Inhibition of TGFβ in non-responders can potentially help to improve outcomes in these patients.
Epigenetics: Methylating patterns
Epigenetics: Methylating patterns, Published online: 09 March 2018; doi:10.1038/nrc.2018.21Xie et al. show that senescence-associated DNA methylation changes evolve independently of stochastic tumour-associated methylation changes and that a subset of commonly methylated genes with the highest gains are associated with early tumorigenesis and ageing.