Nature Rev. Cancer
Fasting in oncology: a word of caution
Fasting in oncology: a word of caution, Published online: 16 January 2019; doi:10.1038/s41568-018-0098-0Fasting in oncology: a word of caution
Reply to ‘Fasting in oncology: a word of caution’
Reply to ‘Fasting in oncology: a word of caution’, Published online: 16 January 2019; doi:10.1038/s41568-018-0100-xReply to ‘Fasting in oncology: a word of caution’
Modelling cancer in microfluidic human organs-on-chips
Modelling cancer in microfluidic human organs-on-chips, Published online: 15 January 2019; doi:10.1038/s41568-018-0104-6In vitro cancer models often fail to faithfully recapitulate the local tissue and organ microenvironment. Organs-on-chips can overcome this limitation and better mimic in vivo cancer phenotypes. This Review outlines the advances that have been made with this technology and explains the challenges that must be overcome to see its implementation into drug development pipelines and clinical cancer care.
Get to know your epigenetic target
Get to know your epigenetic target, Published online: 07 January 2019; doi:10.1038/s41568-018-0103-7Two studies suggest that caution is warranted in attempts to inhibit the histone methyltransferase G9a for cancer therapy, as its loss can promote tumour development and evolution.
Expanding the search
Expanding the search, Published online: 07 January 2019; doi:10.1038/s41568-018-0101-9Laumont, Vincent et al. have developed a proteogenomic strategy for high-throughput mass spectrometry-based discovery of aberrantly expressed tumour-specific antigens from non-coding sequences as well as mutated tumour-specific antigens encoded by all genomic regions, thereby expanding the number of targetable antigens that can be used for cancer vaccine development.
Maintaining the tumour’s diet
Maintaining the tumour’s diet, Published online: 04 January 2019; doi:10.1038/s41568-018-0097-1Poillet-Perez et al. show that autophagy in non-tumour tissues in tumour-bearing mice inhibits release of the arginine-degrading enzyme arginase 1 (ARG1) from the liver into circulation, thereby maintaining the levels of arginine in the circulation and contributing to tumour growth.
Your genomic inheritance matters
Your genomic inheritance matters, Published online: 21 December 2018; doi:10.1038/s41568-018-0099-zLim et al. show that there is an association between germline genetic variants and the immune features of a tumour, and that genetic background might affect responses to immunotherapy.
Genomic evolution of cancer models: perils and opportunities
Genomic evolution of cancer models: perils and opportunities, Published online: 21 December 2018; doi:10.1038/s41568-018-0095-3Genomic instability in cancer models presents a major challenge in the design and reproducibility of research and its clinical translation. This Opinion article discusses the causes and consequences of intra-tumour genomic heterogeneity and instability in commonly used models and implications thereof.
Therapeutically exploiting STAT3 activity in cancer — using tissue repair as a road map
Therapeutically exploiting STAT3 activity in cancer — using tissue repair as a road map, Published online: 21 December 2018; doi:10.1038/s41568-018-0090-8This Review discusses how excessive signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) activation within cancer cells and cells of the tumour microenvironment can be viewed as a neoplastic mimic of an inflammation-driven repair response that promotes tumour progression.
Checkpoint ahead — be prepared to stop!
Checkpoint ahead — be prepared to stop!, Published online: 12 December 2018; doi:10.1038/s41568-018-0096-2Two studies published in Cell have characterized the inhibitory immune receptor NKG2A expressed on cytotoxic lymphocytes, such as natural killer cells and CD8+ T cells, as a novel checkpoint for cancer immunotherapy.
Radiation promotes systemic responses
Radiation promotes systemic responses, Published online: 12 December 2018; doi:10.1038/s41568-018-0094-4New findings published in Nature Medicine highlight a role for the anti-CTLA4 antibody ipilimumab when combined with radiotherapy in treating metastatic NSCLC.
Post-GWAS in prostate cancer: from genetic association to biological contribution
Post-GWAS in prostate cancer: from genetic association to biological contribution, Published online: 11 December 2018; doi:10.1038/s41568-018-0087-3This Review discusses causal germline variants in prostate cancer identified through genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and post-GWAS analyses. The latter are vital to identify causal variants and molecular mechanisms by which these variants promote prostate tumorigenesis, with potential clinical applications.
A year of ups and downs
A year of ups and downs, Published online: 10 December 2018; doi:10.1038/s41568-018-0093-5Cancer research and Nature Reviews Cancer have both experienced many highs and lows in 2018, and we look forward to what 2019 has in store.
The lung microenvironment: an important regulator of tumour growth and metastasis
The lung microenvironment: an important regulator of tumour growth and metastasis, Published online: 10 December 2018; doi:10.1038/s41568-018-0081-9In this Review, Altorki et al. discuss how the tumour-reprogrammed lung microenvironment can contribute to primary lung tumour progression as well as lung metastasis from extrapulmonary neoplasms by promoting inflammation, angiogenesis, immune modulation and therapeutic responses.
Regulatory networks in AML
Regulatory networks in AML, Published online: 06 December 2018; doi:10.1038/s41568-018-0092-6Assi et al. have generated multi-omics data on leukaemic blasts from acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) patients with defined genetic alterations. These data provide a comprehensive overview of the specific transcriptional and signalling networks in certain AML subtypes.
Cytokinesis defects and cancer
Cytokinesis defects and cancer, Published online: 06 December 2018; doi:10.1038/s41568-018-0084-6This Review discusses the evidence that whole-genome duplication as a consequence of cytokinesis failure can contribute to tumorigenesis.
Immunosuppressive lymphatics, Published online: 06 December 2018; doi:10.1038/s41568-018-0091-7Lane et al. have shown that interferon-γ (IFNγ)-mediated activation of the lymphatic vasculature, as a non-haematopoietic component of the tumour stroma, serves to limit local CD8+ T cell accumulation in melanoma in mice as a mechanism of immune suppression.
A source of calcium
A source of calcium, Published online: 03 December 2018; doi:10.1038/s41568-018-0089-1Wang et al. demonstrate that increased flux of calcium derived from osteogenic cells into cancer cells promotes early-stage bone colonization. Calcium signalling in cancer cells can be targeted by arsenic trioxide, thereby reducing bone metastasis progression.
Cancer chromatin accessed
Cancer chromatin accessed, Published online: 28 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41568-018-0088-2A study in Science reports the genome-wide chromatin accessibility profiles across 23 cancer types from The Cancer Genome Atlas and notably increases the number of known gene regulatory elements.
Cooperation among cancer cells: applying game theory to cancer
Cooperation among cancer cells: applying game theory to cancer, Published online: 23 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41568-018-0083-7This Opinion argues that understanding the interactions between cells that occur in tumours requires concepts from evolutionary game theory. Game theory can provide insights into the stability of cooperation among cells in a tumour and how this might be used therapeutically.